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The Greater German Reich

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Greater German Reich

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Official State Flag

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The official flag of the Greater German Reich is called the "German Triad".

The three arrows on it represent the three virtues of Duty, Obedience and Loyalty.

The Duty every German has to the dream of a Greater Germany.

The Obedience every German must show if all are to survive.

The Loyalty every German should show to the State.

The Reichsadler

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Government Structure:

Capital: Berlin

Government: Single-party state, Totalitarian autocratic dictatorship, Empire

Head of State: Kaiser des Großdeutschen Reiches , Scolar Visari

Head of Government: Reichskanzler des Großdeutschen Reiches, Marlish Udet

Currency: Reichsmark

The fundamental laws of the Reich consist of the Constitution of the Reich, the Constitutions of New Order, the Germanic Charter, and certain other “organic laws” enacted by the legislature. The fundamental laws establish that supreme executive, legislative, military, and judicial authority inhered in the Kaiser, who exercised these powers either by ordinary means (the Reichstag, the Supreme Court, the State) or extraordinary means (the Ruling Council, the Privy Council, Reich High Command).

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Portrait of Visari, which is hung in most schools and public places

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Kaiser des Großdeutschen Reiches , Scolar Visari:

The Kaiser is the absolute leader of the German Reich and in him inhered supreme executive, legislative, and judicial authority. The Kaiser is also the Supreme Commander of the Reich Armed Forces.

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Reichskanzler des Großdeutschen Reiches, Marlish Udet:

Reichskanzler is the office in the Reich responsible for maintaining the day-to-day operations of the Empire and the bureaucracy. The office was created to award his long time friend and ally, Marlish Udet. He overseas the myriad departments, bureaus, and offices and acted as personal assistant to the Emperor. Essentially, the Reichskanzler performed almost all the day-to-day duties which the Kaiser couldn't perform due to his known periods in seclusion. He acts as an intermediary for the Kaiser ; few spoke to His Majesty without first going through the Reichskanzler. He also acts as President and Chair of the Reichstag. He also handles the Imperial Seal and is the Steward of the Imperial Personal Archives, a position that granted him access to Kaiser's secret communications and recordings. During the Emperor's periods of seclusion, the Reichskanzler is the de-facto ruler of the Empire

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Supreme Commander of the Wehrmacht

The Supreme Commander presides over the largest and most powerful military force ever assembled. He chaired the twice-weekly meetings of the Supreme Commander's Committee — the other members were the Deputy Supreme Commander, the First Naval Lord and Chief of Naval Operations, the Chief of Imperial General Staff, The Chief of Air Operations, and the Director of Reich Intelligence — to review the Empire's state of military readiness and to coordinate efforts to meet operational requirements, and was aided by the Surpreme Commander's Staff, whose staff directorates tracked every commitment of Reich forces at regiment-strength and above.

The Reichstag:

The Reichskanzler (chancellor, head of government) is responsible to the Reichstag, which was directly elected by the people. When Scolar Visari rose to power, the Reichstag formally dispensed from itself exclusive responsibility for the exercise of the legislative power. From then on it only functioned as a body of ratification by acclamation, for the action(s); legislative; minsterial; and executive, of the dictatorship.

The Courts:

The Imperial Court system is tasked with administering Imperial Justice. The Court system consist of the Supreme Court of the German Reich, the courts of appeals, courts of the second tier which were the subject-matter courts hearing cases on an “All-Empire, and the Imperial District Courts.

Imperial Justice System

The Reich Justice System, in the form of the Reich Ministry of Justice, is tasked with administering law to the vast provinces, protectorates and colonies. The Reich Ministry of Justice operates the local law enforcement and office of criminal investigations. The Imperial Justice System is also composed of the HIMAGs, which prosecute the offenders; and the Reich Ministry of Corrections, which punish the guilty.

Council of Ministers

The Council of Ministers of the Empire is the collective body of senior political appointees at the head of the various ministries, independent agencies, and state corporations that composed the Imperial State and as such had the authority to set policy governing the whole of the executive branch of the Empire on an “All-Empire” basis.

Reich Ministries and Bureaus

Reich Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Reich Ministry of Justice

Reich Ministry of War

Reich Ministry of the Navy

Reich Ministry of Aviation

Reich Ministry of Interior

Reich Ministry of Finance

Reich Ministry of Health and Epidemic Prevention

Reich Ministry of Business and Commerce

Reich Ministry of Communications

Reich Ministry of Energy

Reich Ministry of Science

Reich Ministry of Space

Reich Minister of Education

Reich Ministry of Transportation and Safety

Reich Ministry of Corrections

Reich Ministry of Labor Resources

Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda

Reich Ministry of Foodstuffs and Consumables

State Ideology

The political arm of the Ersatzstaat, the New Order Party is the single largest political party in the Reich, and was at the center of its own small constellation of organizations (such as the New Order Leadership Council, the Antonius Institute, and the New Order Rectors Association). It had chapters in all Imperial jurisdictions and claimed 100% of the Reichstag's votes. Its party platform is unabashedly both populist and authoritarian; it advocated sweeping changes to existing power structures to make them conform with the Party's official ideology of "Correct Thought," a totalitarian system designed as a practical application of nationalism, and boast that vigorous application of Correct Thought allowed an individual to live his entire life without ever having to make a single decision for himself. In theory, the local party organizations were more or less autonomous, but in practice it had a strictly enforced system of party discipline, with all major policy decisions dictated from further up the chain of command, ultimately culminating in the New Order Committee, the unelected junta that controlled the overall New Order Party of the Greater German Reich.

Administrative Regions

Under the Kaiser's regime, administrative powers were significantly altered. The German constituent states were replaced by local "gaus" (regional districts) led by officials who obeyed the central government's orders. Each "gau" is led by a Gauleiter, which had considerable power within his territory.

16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia; note - Bayern, Sachsen, and Thueringen refer to themselves as free states (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat)

Reichsgau Administrative Units:

A Reichsgau (plural Reichsgaue) is an administrative sub-division created in a number of the areas annexed to Greater Germany. It should not be confused with the Gau, an administrative region of Germany proper. In the Reichsgaue, the Gauleiter also carried the position of Reichsstatthalter.

Reichsgau Slovenia

Reichsgau Denmark

Reichsgau Hungary

Reichsgau Austria

Reichsgau Sudentland

Reichskommissariat:

The German Reich also maintains a number of Reichskommissariats. These protectores are governed by reichskommissars. The reichskommissar holds all executive authority and answer directly to the central Reich government.

Reichskommissariat Ost

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Capital: Welthauptstadt Germania (Berlin)

Specifications of the New Berlin

The Avenue Of Victory

Berlin was reorganized along a central three-mile long boulevard known as the Avenue of Victory. This would run south from a crossroads with the East-West Axis close to the Brandenburg Gate, following the course of the old Siegesallee through the Tiergarten before contininuing down to an area just west of Tempelhof Airport. This new North-South Axis will serve as a parade ground and would be closed off to traffic. During parades, Vehicles will be diverted into an underground highway running directly underneath the parade route. Two new railway stations will be built on the city's main S-Bahn ring with the Nordbahnhof in Wedding and the larger Südbahnhof in Tempelhof-Schöneberg at the southern end of the avenue.

The Grosser Platz

At the northern end of the avenue on the north side of the East-West Axis is a large open forum known as the Grosser Platz with an area of around 350,000 square metres. This square is to be surrounded by the grandest buildings of all, with the Reich Kaiser Palace on the west side, the Reichstag on the east side and the high command of the German Army on the south side (on either side of the square's entrance from the Avenue of Victory).

The Volkshalle (“People's Hall”), also called Große Halle (“Great Hall”) or Ruhmeshalle (“Hall of Fame”)

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On the north side of the plaza, a large dome, known as the People's Assembly was constructed. The oculus of the building's dome, 46 metres (150 ft) in diameter, would be large enough to accommodate the entire rotunda of Hadrian's Pantheon and the dome of St. Peter's Basilica. The dome of the People's Assembly was to rise from a massive granite podium 315 by 315 metres (1,030 ft × 1,030 ft) and 74 metres (240 ft) high, to a total inclusive height of 290 metres (950 ft). The diameter of the dome is 250 metres (820 ft). From this massive building, the Emperor would deliver his weekly addresses to the masses.

The large niche (50 metres high by 28 metres wide) at the north end of the Volkshalle was to be surfaced with gold mosaic and to enclose an eagle 24 metres (79 ft) high, beneath which was situated Visari's tribunal. From here he would address 180,000 listeners, some standing in the central round arena, others seated in three concentric tiers of seats crowned by one hundred marble pillars, 24 metres (79 ft) high, which rose to meet the base of the coffered ceiling suspended from steel girders sheathed on the exterior with copper.

On top of the dome's lantern was an eagle grasping in its claws on the globe of the Earth (Erdball).

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New Reich Palace/Visari's Palace

The Kaiser had a moderate palace in Berlin; however, it was far what he imagined. Therefore, he ordered his best architects to plan the construction of a new palace. Something which would be awe-aspiring and show the power of the Greater German Reich. After months of planning and dozens of conferences, the Kaiser approved the new Palace.

The Palace grounds would be home to more than twenty connected structures and more than twenty thousand rooms; some of the rooms, like the Grand Corridor, were themselves kilometers long. The Palace complex would be so large and extensive that it would serve simultaneously as a miniature government district, housing a fully-equipped medical sub-complex and a number of offices and headquarters, including the War Room, the Admiral’s Office, the Crypt (a cryptologic center, not a burial vault), and the Imperial Information Center.

The residential district of the Palace complex will be accessible through the Grand Corridor, including the wood-paneled Kaiser's Guests Floor; the Kaiser’s actual living space is a tiny fraction of the Palace called the Residence, a suite of residential rooms, studies, private audience chambers, libraries, and art galleries deep in the core of the main building reserved for his personal use.

The Palace includes a number of throne rooms and audience chambers, including the Chamber of the Imperial Presence, a cavernous room modeled on the old Reichstag with the Imperial Throne on a raised column where it will be bathed in illumination from prismatic skylights; it is from this chamber that he will give most of his public addresses.

The Arch Of Triumph

Towards the southern end of the avenue is an arch based on the Arc de Triomphe, in Paris, but again, much larger; it is 330 feet high, and the Arc de Triomphe is able to easily fit inside its opening.

New Berlin Tempelhof Airport

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The Greater German Reich will also be rebuilding the nation's airport systems. The new Airport, named the New Berlin Tempelhof Airport, will consist of three terminals. Each terminal will be two miles long and have 120 gates along with 73 aircraft parking spots. New computerized system will allow the airport to process 20,000 bags per hour and passengers will be able to pick up their luggage, within 5 minutes of a plane unloading.

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Germania Art and Cultural Center

The Museum of Art will be seven stories and have total floor area of 112,000 sq m, 2,800 rooms, 7 km of corridors, over 4,000 windows, and 17 stairways. The Museum will contain a collection of art from every ethnic group in the Reich, which include German, Turkish, other (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish), Slovenian, Danish, Austrian, Hungarian and Russian.

Colossus of Visari

In the very center of Germania, a massive statue of Scolar Visar was constructed. The Colossus of Visari stands well over 30 meters (107 ft) high. In one hand, he will be holding the flag of the Greater German Reich; while in the other, he will be holding a massive cut-out of Germany.

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Soldier's Hall

One of the most prominent memorial buildings intended to commemorate Germany's past and anticipated military glory is the Soldier's Hall. This building promoted the regime's glorification of war, patriotic self-sacrifice and virtutes militares. The main architectural features of this building are overtly Roman. Inside of the main hall, military weapons and flags captured from enemies were put on display.

A groin-vaulted crypt beneath the main barrel-vaulted hall was built as a pantheon of German Field Marshals of the past, present and future exhibited here in effigy. In addition, it functioned as a herõon, since the bones of Frederick the Great were placed in the building. Regular German soldiers, who died in past wars, had their names put on display as well.

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Reich Stadium

The Reich Stadium was aspired by the Panathenaic Stadium of Athens. Since the stadium was not set like the Panathenaic Stadium structure at the bottom of a gully, but on a flat area of land (24 hectares), its five tiers of seats for 400,000 spectators had to be supported in the usual Roman manner by massive barrel vaults. The external façade of pink granite blocks, which would have risen to a height of about 90 metres (about 100 yards), consisted of a series of arches 65 metres (about 71 yards) high resting on a podium of dark red granite.

In order to deliver such a vast number of spectators to their sets quickly, express lifts were to be installed to take spectators 100 at a time to seats on the top three tiers. The short transverse axis of the stadium culminated at each of its ends in a raised pulvinar (Ehrentribüne) for the Kaiser, special guests and the press.

Population Statistics

Population: 107,998,454

Age structure:

0-14 years: 13.8% (male 5,826,066/female 5,524,568)

15-64 years: 66.2% (male 27,763,917/female 26,739,934)

65 years and over: 20% (male 6,892,743/female 9,622,320)

Median age:

total: 43.4 years

male: 42.2 years

female: 44.7 years

Population growth rate:

-0.044%

Birth rate:

8.18 births/1,000 population

Death rate:

10.8 deaths/1,000 population

Ethnic groups:

German, Turkish, other (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish), Slovenian, Danish, Austrian, and Hungarian

Religions:

Protestant, Roman Catholic, Muslim, unaffiliated or other

Languages:

German + others

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 16 years (2006)

Economic Statistics

The New Order party opposed both international socialism and liberal capitalism, arguing that their views represented a third way. They claimed to provide a realistic economic alternative that was neither laissez-faire capitalism nor communism. They favoured corporatism and class collaboration, believing that the existence of inequality and separate social classes was beneficial (contrary to the views of socialists). The New Order Pary argued that the state had a role in mediating relations between these classes (contrary to the views of liberal capitalists).

An inherent aspect of the Germany economy was economic dirigisme, meaning an economy where the government exerts strong directive influence, and effectively controls production and allocation of resources. In general, apart from the nationalizations of some industries, the Germany economy were based on private property and private initiative, but these were contingent upon service to the state. For example, an owner of agricultural land may be compelled to raise wheat instead of sheep and employ more labor than he would find profitable.

In terms of economic practice, this meant promoting the interests of successful businessmen while destroying trade unions and other organizations of the working class. "the State pays for the blunders of private enterprise... Profit is private and individual. Loss is public and social." The government encourages the pursuit of private profit and offered many benefits to large businesses, but they demanded in return that all economic activity should serve the national interest

Basics of Reich Economics

People can own their own businesses, but political leaders make policies concerning these.

The government controls the mail system.

The government controls most of the road and rail networks.

The government has a virtual monopoly on the provision of policing.

Intercity passenger rail is a nationalized industry.

The government tells manufacturers what to make if something is in need during war time.

All major telecommunications and defense industries are nationalized.

The Reich Department for Epidemic Prevention bans certain drugs.

The government has created a minimum wage law.

The government provides social welfare payments to some citizens.

A sizable part of pre-college education is government-provided.

All major trade unions were abolished and forced to merge with the RLF (Reich Labour Front) to which all workers had to belong.

Deutsche Lufthansa is privately ran, during peace. However, during war, the civilian airfleet is tasked with flying many transport missions in direct support of the Armed Forces

GDP

- Total $1.228 trillion

- Per capita $38,000

Agriculture - products:

potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry

Industries:

producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles

Oil Production:

519,400 bbl/day Natural Fuels

670,000 bbl/day Synthetic Fuel Production

National Oil Reserve

579 million barrels (9.21E+7 m3).

Natural resources:

coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land, timber, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, hydropower, petroleum, fish, limestone, chalk, stone, gravel, sand and bauxite

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the Wehrmacht

The Armed Forces of the Greater German Reich are simultaneously the Reich's source of power and its means of applying it, both mine and mint. Composed of the Kraigsmarine, The Heer, The Luftwaffe, and Reich Nuclear forces, the military represents the single largest investment of resources in the whole of the Reich system.

Leadership of the Armed Forces of the Reich

Operational control of the Military is exercised centrally by Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) (English: "High Command of the Armed Forces"), an independent body established by Imperial Decree to fill the role played by the Reich Ministry of Defense.

From the state-of-the-art command suite of SHAFI, the Supreme Commander presided over the largest and most powerful military force ever assembled. He chaired the twice-weekly meetings of the Supreme Commander's Committee — the other members were the Deputy Supreme Commander, the First Naval Lord and Chief of Naval Operations, the Chief of Imperial General Staff, The Chief of Air Operations, and the Director of Reich Intelligence — to review the Empire's state of military readiness and to coordinate efforts to meet operational requirements, and was aided by the Surpreme Commander's Staff, whose staff directorates tracked every commitment of Reich forces at regiment-strength and above. Additionally, the Supreme Commander was the appointing authority for the military's independent commissions like the Reich Military Oversight Commission and the Reich Commission on the Conduct of the War, and could exert considerable influence on appropriations and procurement.

The German Army:

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Army Command:

The Army commanders (Oberbefehlshaber des Heeres, or OBdH for short) of the Wehrmacht is currently Generalfeldmarschall Walter Von Sudenland

The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) is Germany's Army High Command. Following German tradition the OBdH did not plan operations. This task was left to the General Staff, so actually the most important man in the Army was the chief of the general staff (Chef des Generalstabs des Heeres, or Chef GenStdH for short).

During the Greater German Reich, the Chiefs of General Staff is Generaloberst Hans Leizler

The German Army

Conscription and Reserve: Under the Law on Universal Military Service, all male citizens must serve in the armed forces beginning at the age of eighteen.

Eighteen-year-olds are exempted from service if they are enrolled in a higher education institution.

The Army has a very elaborate Reserve system. Soldiers retained a reserve obligation until age fourty. For officers, the reserve obligation extended to fifty.

Current Troops:

300,000 Troops

300,000 Reserve Forces - Takes up to fourty-eight hours to completely mobilize.

The German Soldier

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CompForce Stormtrooper

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Average Age: 20

Basic Equipment: AVIR Assault Rifle, XE-101 Xenias Infantry Combat Uniform, 4 HE Hand Grenades, TA- 100 Anti-Tank Rocket Launcher (For Airbourne Only)

The German soldier is one of the most visible images of German military might. He receives his training at an early age, mostly through the compulsory Sub Adult Group of the Ersatzstaat, where every young German must attend. It is at the Sub Adult Group where he learns basic survival skills, physical fitness, political indoctrination, how to fire a weapon, and some proper military etiquette.

Upon joining the German Army, he joins the Reich Military Academy. The central focus of the Academy is to train and teach soldiers, of the Reich, obedience, discipline, and loyalty. Every trainee that passes through the gates of the Academy participate in basic training and field exercises, before moving onto more specialized training in their chosen combat arm. Live fire exercises provide practical experience as well as the means to test new weapons in combat situations.

Basic Training can last anywhere from 15 weeks to over one year, depending on the career path an individual chooses upon enlistment. The average cost to the Reich is 300,000 Reichmark per student.

Facilities at the Reich Academy include: Military Training Base, Reich Engineering Academy, Reich Special Forces School, Tank Training Fields, Army Officers School, and the Artillery Training Field.

Tactics

The German Army uses Mission-type tactics. In mission-type tactics the military commander gives their subordinate leaders a clearly defined goal (the mission) and the forces needed to accomplish that goal with a time within which the goal must be reached. The subordinate leaders then implement the order independently. The subordinate leader is given, to a large extent, the planning initiative and a freedom in execution which allows flexibility in execution. Mission-type tactics free higher leadership from tactical details. Direct orders are an exception in the German armed forces, while "tasks" are the standard instrument of leadership from high command down to squad level.

For the success of the mission-type tactics it is especially important that the subordinate leaders understand the intent of the orders and are given proper guidance and that they are trained so they can act independently. The success of the doctrine rests upon the receiver of orders understanding the intent of the issuer of the orders and acting to achieve their goal even if their actions violated other guidance or orders they had received. Mission type tactics assume the possibility of violating other previously expressed limitations as a step to achieving a mission and is a concept most easily sustained in a decentralised culture.

The Soldier's Battle Suit: XE - 101 Xenias Combat Infantry Gear

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Helmet:

The Helmet of the Xenias Combat Infantry Gear was developed by the leading electronics corporation in Germany. The total weight of the Xenias Helmet is 5.0kgs. Inside the Helmet, are implemented various TES, or Target Initiation Systems. This includes: intregrated Thermal Day/Night systems and integrated Vision Systems which allows for Target Identification at a range of up to 1.5km.

Also implemented in the Helmet are various communication applications. The Helmet will utilize a voice-activated screen in the helmet to access information without the soldier having to put down their weapons. Embedded in a pair of transparent glasses, the display will appear to the soldier as a 17-inch screen. This screen can display 3D maps and real-time digital video, provided by a forward-positioned scout team, satellite aircraft, high definition digital imaging system, and GPS. Because each soldier is connected to a wide-area network, local commanders can easily connect to each invidual soldier to see what he (the soldier) is seeing on the battlefield.

The Helmet also eliminates the need for an external microphone. The Xenias uses sensors that measure vibrations of the cranial cavity. This bone-conduction technology allows soldiers to communicate with one another, and it also controls the menus visible through the drop-down eyepiece.

The Helmet is equipped with a 360-degree situational awareness and voice amplification system. The Voice Amplication system will allow soldiers to know where that sniper or mortar round came from, but at the same cancel out the noise at a certain decibel so as to not cause damage to the soldier's ears. The situation-awareness technology also allows soldiers to detect other soldiers in front of them up to a couple of kilometers away or focus in on a particular sound and amplify it .

A computer embedded in the suit and located at the base of the soldier's back will be connected to a local and wide-area network, allowing for data transfer.

Armor Specifications:

The Xenias Infantry Gear was sent through vigerous testing in order for the Scientist to decide which armor elements to use. In the end, It was decided that the best armor solution would be to go with Liquid Armor. The boots, gloves, chest garmets and various other garments all contain liquid armour elements. This, in return, gives the soldier increased protection against shrapnel from grenades or exploding shells.

Implemented in the suit are advanced ballistic ceramic discs/panels. Armor is not just ceramic or titanium -- they are actually composed of advanced ceramic or titanium composite matrixes and laminates that can incorporate other materials. The ceramic composite discs/panels are approximately 2" in diameter, and their anti-materiel discs, go up to approx. 3" in diameter. The technology will stop military V0 and V50 threats at military V0 and V50 muzzle velocities, which is higher than NIJ muzzle velocities in the civilian world.

The Armor's most advanced ballistic hard armor, ceramic composite flexible body armor, can defeat multiple hits of 7.62x51mm AP rounds, like the Winchester/Olin .308 SLAP (Saboted Light Armour-Penetrating) round, which utilizes a tungsten sabot bullet, 7.62x39mm and 5.56x45mm rounds at muzzle velocity. Xenias' Armor's unique flexible ceramic hard armor will successfully take many more hits than conventional/standard NIJ Level IV SAPI plates, and provides coverage over a much greater surface area.

The Xenias discs can take hits at the edge without failing. They can also take a greater saturation of hits, i.e. more hits over a given area, than traditional ceramic or titanium hard armor plates/inserts (i.e. SAPI plates). The newer Type 01 armor also reduces trauma to the body, due to much less backface deformation signature (BDS).

Armor system has stopped an NIJ Level IV round with only 9mm backface deformation signature. That's just over 5/16th's of an inch BDA. The wearer can take multiple hits on the vest and keep fighting effectively. This aspect, by itself, is incredibly important, especially in urban warfare and CQB (Close Quarters Battle) scenarios

Power Supply System:

Powering the entire suit is a 2- to 20-watt microturbine generator fueled by a liquid hydrocarbon. A plug-in cartridge containing 10 ounces of fuel can power the soldier's uniform for up to six days. Battery patches embedded in the helmet provide three hours of back-up power.

Knee Pads, Gloves and Boots:

The Knee Pads of the HE-101 Xenias are made of a special rubbary material. The substance, which is shaped just just like the human knee allows for enchanced mobility. The system is also capable of taking high impact. Soldiers are also equipped with Kevlar Gloves. These gloves allow for maximum finger dexterity and provide heat and flash detection of up to 800 F.

The Boots of the Xenias were designed to be of a lightweight athletic design. The boots also have traction over a wide variety of terrain. Also implemented is moisture control.

Cooling and other systems:

Every Xenias Combat Suit is equipped with a moisture wicking base layer beneath pants and boots. This keeps soldiers cool, dry and light. The cooling system is especially useful in a desert or humid enviroment. Also, all major components of the Xenias are water proof and heavy shock aborbsant. The water-proof material also shields the valuable electronics located into the suit while fighting in swamps.

The Micro-climate Conditioning Subsystem, built into the Life Critical Layer, is a network of narrow tubing that would provide 100 watts of heating or cooling to the soldier.

Currently, cooling System circulates chilled water through a special heat-transfer garment. The cooled circulating fluid pulls metabolic heat from the soldier's body and transfers it into the environment through its condenser. The main condenser unit can provide 120 W cooling power in a 95 °F (35 °C) environment, with an average power consumption of 35 W and weight of 3.5 pounds (1.6 kg), excluding the power source.

Exoskeleton:

Each Xenias combat suit is equipped with a small pad filled with nanomachines that mimic the action of human muscles, flexing open and shut when stimulated by an electrical pulse. These nanomachines will create lift the way muscles do and augment overall lifting ability by 25 to 35 percent. The exoskeleton attached to the lower body of the soldier will provide even more strength. The overall exoskeleton will provide up to 200 percent greater lifting and load-carrying capability.

The system is designed so that the exoskeleton mimics the body's natural movement and is not uncomfortable to wear/use. It will also mimic the movement of the body's joints - therefore it will be jointed to allow the sections to move the same way as the body does.

Battlefield Awareness System:

The Battlefield Awareness subsystem of the uniform lies against the soldier's skin and includes sensors that monitor soldier's core body temperature, skin temperature, heart rate, body position (standing or sitting) and hydration levels. If necessary, the BAS can notify medics and commanders if the soldier has been wounded or has become fatigued.

The Soldier's Personal Weapon - StA-12

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StA - 12 Assault Rifle

Technical Specifications

Type- Advanced Personal Weapon System

Caliber- 6.7x35mm CTA

Muzzle Velocity-

-SR: 2,725 FPS

-PDR: 2,650 FPS

-IAR: 2,800 FPS

Operation- Balanced long stroke gas piston, rotating bolt

Barrel Length-

-SR: 18 inches

-PDR: 16 inches

-IAR: 20 inches

Overall Length-

-SR: 32.5 inches

-PDR: 30.5 inches

-IAR: 34.5 inches

Weight-

-SR: 4.7lbs unloaded/5.95lbs loaded

-PDR: 4.4lbs unloaded/5.65lbs loaded

-IAR: 5lbs unloaded/ 6.25lbs loaded

Feed- 50 round helical magazine

Effective Range-

-SR: 800 meters

-PDR: 650 meters

-IAR: 1,000 meters

Rifling- 4 grooves, 1:10 right hand

Rate of Fire- 650 on fully automatic, 1100 burst

Fire Modes- Semi Automatic; 2-rd Burst/Automatic (depending on trigger pull)

Ground Armor, Artillary and other Technology of the Army:

Panzer VII Main Battle Tank

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Produced: 5,500

Manufacturer: Stahl Land Systems

Crew: 3

Weight: 67,400kg

Power to Weight Ratio: 26.7

Length: 7.97m

Length of Gun: 7m

Width: 3.8m

Height: 2.6m

Ground Clearance: .4m

Engine: 1800 hp Gas Turbine

Maximum Velocity: 74km/h

Range: 640km

Range With External Tanks: 1,130km

Trench: 5.6m

Step: 5.6m

Vertical Obstacle: 1.4m

Ford Unprepared: 1.8m

Ford Prepared: 6m

Climbing Gradient: 40x

Fire and Control Computer: Cornerstone Mk III

Armament: 140mm Light Weight High Breech Pressure Liquid Propellant ETC

1x G379B 20mm CTA ETC autocannon

1x 12.7mm HMG

1x Remote Weapon Station (HammerFist)

1x 60mm mortar

Ammunition:

48 Rounds in turret/36 rounds in turret

Main Gun Depression: -5/+38 degrees

Armor [Rolled Homogenous Equivalent with ERA vs. KE]:

Lower Hull: 1,100mm

Glacis: 2,440mm

Front 1/3 Side Hull: 930mm

Front Side Turret/ Side Turret: 1,920mm

Rear Turret: 740mm

Rear Hull: 698.5mm

Side Hull: 1,810mm

Mantlet: 3,325mm

Weakened Zone: 3,450mm

Front Turret Corners: 3,450mm

Side Turret: 2,200mm

Roof: 235mm

Armor [Rolled Homogenous Equivalent with ERA vs. CE]:

Lower Hull: 1,400mm

Glacis: 2,980mm

Front 1/3 Side Hull: 1,100m

Front Side Turret/Side Turret: 2,100mm

Rear Turret: 1,498mm

Rear Hull: 1,387mm

Side Hull: 1,750mm

Mantlet: 3,610mm

Weakened Zone: 3,790mm

Front Turret Corners: 3,820mm

Side Turret: 1,830mm

Roof: 715mm

Suspension: Active Hydropneumatic Suspension System

Sensors & Range:

4th Generation FLIR @ 13km targeting range; 8km classification range

3rd Generation LADAR @ ~10km classification range

3rd Generation CITV

Night Vision: Integrated with sensors.

NBC Protection: Air-tight chassis and turret, air filtration and overpressure air conditioning system, masks and uniforms. Protected against EMP.

Cost for Upgrade: $2.7 million / $3.2 million

Cost for New Production: $10 million / $11 million

Armour and defense:

Armor: Throughout the tank project, even for the Ausva. A, although there was no home grown ceramic armor composite drawn up for the design at that time, there was a series of tests in Targul Frumos. This included a major conference on wave propagation in composite and ceramic armor, and the difference between said two armors, which would eventually allow engineers to decide on which to settle on for the Panzer. In the end, it was decided that to stop kinetic penetrations and chemical penetrations alike the best was ceramic armor, and there was a host of ceramics to pick from, as well as other composite materials. From this variety the final product, Cermin Armech Modulien [CAM], was produced. The actual ceramic of CAM is encased in two walls of improved rolled homogenous armor [iRHA]. True breakthroughs to harden the steel while keeping its ductility, weldability and relative low cost (to other materials). With the constant battle between armor and projectile it is imperative to look for greater strength in mass effectiveness – meaning, without the sacrifice of weight and space. According to ballistic testing using a tungsten penetrator fired out of a 105mm smoothbore, IRHA was superior to conventional RHA, while still having the ease of weldability, while surprisingly, a tested high hardness alloy, which had ~.30% carbon (the IRHA having ~ .26%; for weldability steel should normally have .24-.26% carbon) fell between the IRHA and RHA in resistance to the penetrator. Of all, IRHA proved ballistic superiority over RHA without increase in weight or space. The exact composition of IRHA would be .26 carbon, 3.25 nickel, 1.45 chromium, .55 molybdenum, .40 manganese, .40 Silicone, .009 Phosphorous, .002 sulfur, and this is normalized at 1700 F, and then air cooled, where they were austenitized at 1625 F and water quenched. Finally they were tempered at 925 F for Rc47 hardness, which showed superiority over Rc41 hardness. When put together to form CAM the IRHA is backed up by semi hardened steel and Armox 600, a type of high hardness steel in the Rc55 spectrum. Evidence suggests that the same penetrator striking an Rc47 Semi-infinite IRHA target at 1716 m/s would penetrate 107-109mm of armor. Originally titanium was chosen over both rolled homogenous armor and improved homogenous armor, but the cost of not only producing and properly welding the titanium was far over the budgetary requirements of the Panzer VII per unit, while it would prove even more expensive to test titanium with different alloying, including carbon and molybdenum, both of which are used in steel and titanium to increase hardness without sacrificing ductility. Improved rolled homogenous armor proved to be superior in cost and provided a readily available solution to improving CAM.

In a 2014 test in Germany it was decided that the ideal ceramic would be of low density to reduce total weight, while it would be high in shear moduli, compressibility and high bulk. A separate conference in 2015 on wave propagation in ceramic found that high tensile strength was also just as urgent to avoid fracturing of the ceramic during impact. In the end three different ceramics were chosen for the job, including sintered silicon carbide [sSiC], Titanium Di-Boride, and Alumina Zirconia. Each of the ceramics during manufacturing is prestressed, increasing resistance to impact and to subsequent shockwaves. The idea is that even should the ceramic crack, because of the confinement of the volume and location, the ceramic’s resistance is still kept, meaning that the armor would not be a one use wonder. The Alumina is arranged first to make use of the alloys excellent poisson’s ratio, which would mean that the alloy would simply compress and powder upon impact, reducing the kinetic energy of a projectile, and breaking up a jet from a high explosive anti-tank warhead, or a similar weapon system. The silicon carbide is arranged second as a neutral buffer to offer slightly less resistance, but at a lesser weight. The idea is that although the silicon carbide performs the job less adequately than the alumina, the fact that the alumina had already attracted much of the energy of the penetrator, the light weight of the silicon carbide would actually lessen the weight of the entire armored scheme, and because it didn’t have the face that same power as the first layer, it wouldn’t undergo the same dangers. The final layer gives the pure force against kinetic penetrators, with high compressibility, but with less chance of powdering, meaning the ceramic is centrally designed to totally stop the projectile. The Titanium Di-Boride also has the less chance to fracture, making it a perfect candidate for the job. Ballistic testing in Targul Frumos also proved the value of fiber reinforcement of ceramics and compounds alike, and so the entirety of CAM is laced with fiber reinforcement, putting the icing on what has been proven to be an extremely effective armored scheme. Originally, depleted uranium [dU] was planned to be alloyed into the confining steel, but instead it was opted to simply stick dU rods at certain intervals which would increase the chance of the rod ricocheting faster, or at least induce greater amounts of yaw on the round. The decision between the two methods of including dU into the armor are not fully understood to physicist, but it is understood that the older chobham, which CAM is largely based off, used either modules of dU or dU rods and gained greater chances of slowing and skewing the rod than by inserting the dU during the heating of the steel, which is evident in the Leclerc’s armor scheme. The study of the impact ballistics of the two will be studied, and it is possible to see a change in a future variant (see below).

As common practice on armored vehicles of the current generation, engineers decided to cover the passive ceramic armor with a reactive armor on top. In the summer of 2011, during the design of the Ausva. A, Kriegzimmer conducted a test which decided on the protection capability of dual flying plates against long-rod penetrators, which are by far the greatest threat to modern tank forces given the doctrine of most of the international world. It was decided that although a dual plate explosive reactive armor was superior to a single plate explosive reactive armor, the results yielded by the plates moving in opposite directions were not necessarily all that superior. However, mass efficiency could be reached through making the rear plate as heavy as possible. Consequently, the rear plate is roughly 48.5mm thick, while the front plate is around 25mm thick. These two plates are separated by tightly packed explosives which would force the front plate towards the penetrator and the rear plate away from the penetrator. This concept endured further testing in 2015 at Mandalay and it was decided that the effects of the first plate would be sufficient enough so that the second plate would put up quite a bit of resistance against a long-rod penetrator, that by this time would have either been turned, snapped, or would have lost much of its momentum. The explosive is actually piled forward, with the rear plate and the explosives separated by three thinner inner plates which are said to be segmented, meaning that they are intended to detonate separately. This ultimately means that the blocks may be reusable, although given the strength of modern penetrators, this would be a less frequent occurrence. The effects are said to be maximized at a minimum slope of 60 degrees. In any case, only about 95% of the front of the tank is protected, most notably leaving parts of the bottom of the turret, and mantel, without protection due to the fact that the blocks would impede the depreciation of the main gun. About 80% of the sides and rear are protected. The Arca. IV is also one of the first and few tanks to employ a roof appliqué explosive reactive armor system. This of course is lighter than the heavy ERA fitted as appliqué to the front, sides and rear of the tank, but nonetheless offers a substantial increase in protection of the roof, one of the weakest areas of any vehicle. The fact that the turret roof is relatively completely flat, having the roof hatch at the rear, allowing the gun to depress, means that more of the roof can be effectively protected by light explosive reactive armor. The system uses 7.6 x 11.9mm blocks with two parallel plates lined with explosives underneath. The plates are designed to explode outward, offering ~four times the protection as RHAe [against HEAT] given the ~90 degree sloping of the roof. Nevertheless, the roof mounted ERA appliqué offers an interesting, innovative and effective method of negating the advance of smaller submunitions used in tank killing. Nevertheless, the system is defeated through the use of the tandem warheads on top attack anti-tank guided missiles – but some protection is better than no protection.

Underneath both the explosive reactive armor and the CAM there is a spall liner which offers the ultimate layer of defense for the crew, attempting to avoid hazardous and very hot fragments of penetrators pouring into the crew cabins. Two options were originally available, Kevlar and Steltexolites, and in the end the fact that Kevlar offered similar protection against fragments at just ¾ the density, it was chosen over the latter, although the latter provides greater protection against armor piercing shells. Nevertheless, arguably, the first two layers would provide the most critical defense, and if the round was able to penetrate this then it would most likely be able to penetrate the spall liner as well. However, by 2017 Spectra Shield and Dyneema has been successfully tested in places such as the naval proving grounds at Targul Frumos, and both achieved similar results as Kevlar but at ¾ the weight. Consequently, it was finally decided to adopt Dyneema, which had seen past use in German armored fighting vehicles, while it also boasts comparable resistance to fiberglass at 1/3 the density.

The front turret is cast with an internal cavity that is filled with confined quartz and glass reinforced fibers. The turret reinforcement armor is known as “Idaisu”. The quartz is more accurately quartz sand like filament, produced of a type of quartz gravel, asphalt and wood-flour type composite, and this entire composite resembles a fused silica. Ballistic testing has proved this superior to rolled homogenous armor, with a total effectiveness of around ~1.7 mass wise against kinetic energy, and at least ~3.4 mass effectiveness against HEAT warheads. This reinforcement is completely integrated with the turret corners, mantlet and weakened zones. Similar, if less effective, reinforcements include the filler in the prototype of the T-95, an experiment American tank designed during the Second World War, as well as corundum armor which first debuted with the T-64A and saw an enhanced version in the T-80U-M1 Snow Leopard, which was originally conceived as fiberglass enclosed in steel layers. Idaisu improved on both versions of corundum by using a triple hardness steel composite [the same used for CAM], as well as better confinement – newer manufacturing techniques has also allowed to lighten the composite, and it provides a good armor to place directly under the areas protected by the grenade canisters used by the Giod hard-kill active protection system. Furthermore, the use of glass reinforced fibers as opposed to the Soviet steklotekstolit, which is a similar, if older material used in Combination-K, or corundum. Questioning ensued in the project on the actual purpose of the Idaisu, seeing as how adding CAM to the turret, replacing the Idaisu, would increase resistance. It was finally reasoned that the lighter mass of the Idaisu, while keeping similar densities, if less mass effectiveness, would mean that the turret could be reasonably reinforced in the mantlet, weakened zones and turret corners without seriously forcing the turret to be overweight. It would also mean that the tank could complete the one most important aspect of the Panzer VII relevant to the armor.

The trend was to rearrange the armor from the side and rear to the front, which was more or less a global trend as well. It was found that most impacts were on the mantlet, weakened zone and the upper glacis, which is why generally we find these areas to be the most armored on modern main battle tanks since the 1960s. This was further bolstered by explosive reactive armor in some countries, depleted uranium in others and spaced armor in others, depending on national views and army requirements. However, recent anti-tank guided missile threats and more modern targeting computers that have caused a revolution in armored warfare have been changing the most threatened location of the tank from the front to the side and rear. This is one of the reasons for active protection systems, which forces tankers to think outside the frontal arc of the tank. However, the Panzer VII goes one step further and again rearranges the armor. The ultramodern materials used with CAM and new techniques improving heavy explosive reactive armors [HERA] allow for high armor ratios in the traditional areas of the tank, while also allowing for the rearrangement of armor to the sides and rear without adding too much weight. In other words, the Panzer VII sacrifices frontal armor, without actually sacrificing survivability, and shifts the armor to the once extremely unprotected sectors of the tank. Through the use of lightweight and efficient armors in the front, including Idaisu, while providing sufficient mass efficiency through CAM and the advance HERA, the Panzer VII offers awesome protection, and does not forget about the rest of the hull. In fact, the Panzer VII is the first tank to take these measures and will most likely cause new trends in armor design throughout the world. To finalize the order of armor, the Panzer VII completes itself with a thin layer of armor protecting the bottom of the vehicle to increase crew survivability in case of an exploding mine. The new armors, rearrangement of said armor, and added armor in the bottom should increase the survivability of both the vehicle and crew incrementally, especially with growing technologies in steel and ceramic.

Armour and Defense Upgrades

The hull structure remains the same – constructed out of improved rolled homogenous armor. Brand-new 1A3s will have the hull sides strengthened, however, while upgraded tanks will have add on plates welded, in order to allow the installation of a heavy explosive reactive armor over the hull. The added plates are meant more to stop the remainder of the jet or the penetrator which is not defeated by the reactive armor than to survive the moving back plate (the hull was already strong enough to withstand this degree of impact loading). This reactive armor is not as heavy as the Asteriox armor used on the Panzer 1A2, but is similar. However, it uses only one titanium flier plate, with a single bulging perforated ultra-hard steel (600 BHN) plate (20mm) acting as a spaced layer between the forward-moving flier plate and the rear-moving back plate of the explosive reactive armor. On top of the explosive reactive armor is the tank’s main mass of composite-metal hybrid armor, including both passive and reactive elements (although not explosive). Instead of opting to use just one type of ceramic, the Panzer VII and 1A3HA instead use a ‘gradient’, or multiple types of ceramics to combine the abilities of each. Nevertheless, the bulk of the used ceramic is boron carbide, as is used on the Lince main battle tank, for it’s low bulk density. In order to increase protection against shaped charge warheads, the second part of the gradient is composed of pyrex, which has an even lower density than boron carbide. The boron carbide is backed by a thick layer of rolled homogenous armor in order to protect against the spalling of the ceramic tiles. In the Panzer VII metal has been used more than in past incarnations of the tank, and this time in the form of ‘triple hardness metal’ (as opposed to steel) – this includes a thin layer of very hard steel (500 BHN) to break the projectile, a second layer of aluminum dotted with nuggets of boron carbide to provide a strength which can be compared to armored steel (see: Zhang, Haitao, et. al., Superlightweight Nanoengineered Aluminum for Strength Under Impact, Advanced Engineering Materials, Volume 9, Number 5, 2007) and a third layer of perforated aluminum. It should be all steels have also seen radical improvement through the introduction of carbon nanospheres, much like the boron carbide nuggets in aluminum, which can withstand shock pressures of close to 250 tons per square centimeter (see: Eshel, David, Power Shields: Bomb-killing ceramics and nanomaterials improve vehicle protection, Defense Technology International, March 2007). All of this will radically increase protection or allow for a great decrease in weight – the latter being the optimal solution. Finally, the armor includes a top layer of heavy explosive reactive armor, similar to Asteriox in composition, although made with titanium flier plates to decrease weight.

Thicknesses vary from location to location, but as expected the thicker modules are located in the front 90º of the tank, with thinner modules protecting between the 90º arc line and the 120º arc line. Like in the Panzer VI, however, lightweight special armor has been used to increase protection of the rear of the vehicle without sacrificing weight – although costs, as can be expected, spiral upwards. In the case of the rear of the vehicle the gravest threats are infantry small arms projectiles with steel and tungsten cores, as well as rocket propelled grenades and anti-tank guided missiles. The latter are almost near impossible to protect with, especially with physical armor, but the damage done by impacting rocket propelled grenades can be attenuated to a large scale – as long as most of the energy of the grenade’s shaped charge warhead is consumed during penetration. Consequently, the rear side and rear armor is made up primarily of a layered composite armor – a low-density pyrex front-plate, backed by S-2 glass and aluminum foam. The composite armor is protected by a thin steel plate against 8mm tungsten-core armor-piercing projectiles, to offer the vehicle basic survivability against these types of threats; the armor as a hole can defeat up to 20mm anti-material projectiles! Like in past Panzers, the roof armor is still protected by light explosive reactive armor to defeat top-attack explosively formed penetrators and light anti-tank missiles. Furthermore, the vehicle’s floor has been modified by a new shallow v-shaped steel plate welded together – with a hardened ‘weld crest’ – to deflect the blast of anti-tank mines and improvised explosive devices; the suspension has not been modified, given that it’s an active hydropneumatic suspension and the crew can modify the vehicle’s height from the ground as necessary.

The tank commander’s remote weapon station emplacement, which allows the client to choose the RWS of choice, is now protected by a transparent gun-shield, which offers high protection against anti-armor projectiles of up to 13mm in caliber. The gun-shield covers the gunner on the front and on the sides and is composed of a front-plate of aluminum oxynitride, with several inner layers of polycarbonate – the armor is very similar to the technology used to armor MecániCas’ HIM-TEC design. The gun-shield is designed not to intrude in the roof’s armor and to work cooperatively with the explosive reactive armor; to appease clients, the gun-shield is also rated against fragments from the reactive armor, in the low probability that one of the bricks overreacts. In this way, the tank commander can operate the remote weapon station from inside the vehicle – as designed – and from an overhead watch position without fear of being killed by stray gunfire, a dedicated ambush or even a sniper.

It should be noted that the active protection system has seen a new modernization by Indra-Begón and is now known as GIOD Mk. III. This includes a new type of grenade that instead of using fragmentation to destroy inbound warheads, it uses the shockwaves of the blast. Consequently, the threat to nearby dismounted infantry has been radically reduced to the point where it’s no longer a relevant issue. Furthermore, the original radar mast has been eliminated, reducing the turret’s profile, and replaced by six sensors located around the tank operating in the x-band to track incoming threats. The protection system is otherwise the same and offers 360º protection for the Panzer VIIs. In modification packages the new grenades will simply replace the old grenades, as the same launching system is used, and the radar will be eliminated and replaced with the new iteration. It should be noted that similar technology has already been implemented with Sistemas Terrestres Segovia’s Lynx main battle tank (export version of the Lince) and will probably be retrofitted into the Lince at a future date (along with other new technologies).

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Marder II Armoured Personnel Carrier

Produced: 1,217

Crew: 3 [Driver, Commander and Gunner]

Carrying Capacity: 15, including crew

Vehicle Armament:

-1x 35mm Chaingun

-2x portmounted 7.92mm machineguns

-2x Panzerschreck Ausf B. Anti-Tank Missiles

-1x 60mm grenade launcher

Ammunition:

-1,600 rounds for the 35mm [dispensed into four modular bins]

-800 rounds per portmounted machineguns

Length, Hull: 8.7m

Width: 3.57m

Height Overall: 2.3m

Ground Clearance: 0.51m

Weight, Combat: 51 tons

Weight, Empty: 45 tons

Turret Traverse: 360

Engine: Q-300-J 1200bhp Diesel

Maximum Horsepower: 1200bhp

Maximum Road Speed: 76 km/hr

Maximum Reverse Road Speed: 25 km/hr

Maximum Off-Road Speed: 55 km/hr

Acceleration, 0km/hr to 65km/hr: 17 sec

Maximum Range: 620 km

Fuel Capacity: 600 lit

Fording: 2.5m

Tracks: 450mm single pin metalic tracks with rubber inset roadwheels

Vertical Obstacle: 1.13m

Trench: 3.3m

Gradient: 60%

Side Slope: 40%

Armour Type: Composite

RHA: ca. 600mm RHAe vs. KE; ca. 1,600mm vs. CE

NBC System: CC/COP-30, 3+12x IDV-14 - Protected against EMP

Night Vision Equipment: Yes (Driver, Commander, And Gunner)

Cost: 3.2 million USD

Armour

The lower layer of the armour is formed of a 300mm plate of ceramic armour, which is fully modular and made out of light ceramics and alloys. This offers the design an excellent defense against high velocity impacts from kinetic energy weapons, including armour piercing fin stabilized discarding sabots. The armour is considerably lighter than its counterpart used on the Leopard A6, and variant E [spain's self designed variant of the Leopard A6], but it also offers lesser protection against KE threats; nonetheless, the version featured on the Arica I provides enough to protect against anything save a main battle tank and some high velocity medium tank guns. This is layered with a soft insulation on the top to avoid cracking and stress due to the expansion of the top layer.

This top layer is formed of either modular expandable armour system, or an enhanced appliqué armour kit, depending on the customer and weight prerequisites. Although the MEXAS offers greater ratings, the EAAK is also much, much lighter - each offers its own distinct advantages. Regardless of which used, the entire armour system offers very fine protection against both kinetic energy threads and chemical energy threats, making it viable for the vehicle to complete the tasks it was designed for.

Optionally, sometimes witnessed, the MEXAS is covered by an anti-spalling layer which is capped off by a minor ceramic appliqué, which offers minor protection against chemical energy threats. On top of this, hexagons of captive explosive reactive armour are placed on slats, making the CERA largely appliqué as well. Other times, the CERA replaces the MEXAS altogether.

150mm Panzerwerfer M-2000 MRLS

The Panzerwerfer M-2000 has a twelve tube rocket pack which fires twelve 150mm rocket, using whatever warhead prescribed to it. The 'clip' can expend itself in just under eight seconds, while a secondary truck, if present, can re-load the tube system within fifteen seconds, providing a reliable, quick, and powerful, 'get in and get dirty' multiple rocket launch system. The 'clip' is layered with a coating of THYMONEL 8, a RENE N6 Single Crystal Third Generation superalloy, giving it better heat resistance, as well as Hydrogen Enviroment Embrittlement (HEE) protection. The 150mm Panzerwerfer M-2000 MRLS protected about NBC and EMP.

The rockets which can be launched from the Panzerwerfer M-2000 include high explosive, anti-tank, cluster munitions, and heavy saturation rockets. Indeed, any type of rocket is compatible with the Panzerwerfer M-2000 as long as it's 150mm in diameter and around six to eight meters in length.

The maximum range for the Panzerwerfer M-2000 is fifty kilometers, lacking the range of the larger variant. However, it has a faster velocity, one hundred and twenty kilometers an hour, and has better traction, as well as torque. All in all, it is a very effective weapon, and cheap for its use.

SdKfz 124 Wespel Self Propelled Howitzer

Specifications

Manufacturer: Stahl Land Industries

Crew: 3 (commander, gunner and driver)

Dimensions –

Length (hull): 7.1m

Contact with the Ground: 4.9m

Width (hull): 3.65m

Height (to roof): 2.25m

Vertical Deflection Range: 550mm

Weight: 23,700 kilograms

Main Armament –

Gun: CBH.790 160mm L/50 liquid propellant howitzer

Length: 8m

Extended Recoil Length: 550mm

Muzzle Break: Single-chamber muzzle break (70% efficiency)

Angle of Fire: -3º - + 70º

Traverse: 360º

Rate of Fire: 12 rpm

Ammunition: 50 rounds in the chassis

Secondary Armaments –

HammerFist remote weapon system

16x 76mm grenade launchers

3x 7mm short assault rifles

Engine: TA series 600 900hp hybrid gas turbine

Volume: .63m3

Output: 900hp (minimum)

Transmission: Industria Mecánica Real IMR-8020-30 hydrokinetic transmission

Efficiency: 83%

Suspension: Hydropneumatic

Tracks: MecániCas Type 640

NBC: One filter. Air conditioning system. Sealed. EMP Protected

Fire Protection: Two fire extinguishers.

Range: 550km

Slope: 65º

Vertical Obstacle: 1.4m

Wading Capability: 1.5m

Amphibious capability with preparation: 4.5m

Preparation time: 45 minutes

Cost: $4.3 million

G17 Self-Propelled 254mm Mortar

The G17 is the first in a line of self-propelled mortars released by Krieg Industries, and is one of the largest mortars to be actively fielded by any modern army in extensive numbers. That said, the weapon is loosely based off the 2S4, the largest self-propelled mortar to be fielded prior to the fall of the Soviet Union, although restricted by severe limitations forced upon it by poor Soviet engineering in the area, including a very limited traverse, and a lack of general protection for the crew do to the open mount. The G17 looks to improve and generally outdo its Soviet counterpart, as well as provide the Reich with what would be its first true indegenous mortar design. The G17 also has improved shell (bomb) technology, and is immensely more accurate than any of its predecessors. That said, the G17 also sports a higher rate of fire, a better built water cooling system, and increased range. The first units began to roll off the production lines, comissioned for the Reichwehr.

The gun's bore is 254mm wide, or 10in, while it rises to a length of 5,340mm [5.43m]. The gun is contructed out of high grade steel, and lined with lightweight chromium, increasing the amount of barrel pressure applicable from the propellant. The G17s gun can withstand a tested 675MPa worth of pressure, allowing for larger propellants to fire larger rounds, and increasing barrel life. The solid propellant uses the full length of the barrel and the full volume of the gun to achieve maximum range if needed, and to allow greater wights worth of high explosive shells. The solid propellant itself is detonated when the shell is loaded into the breech, and the pressure of the round sets off a pin which sets off the propellant. This makes the system slightly more complex than a standard mortar tube, but allows for much simpler insertion mechanics. That said, the gun still acts as a mortar by keeping high-arcing ballistics. The trunnions are located on either side of the tube, in two vertical cylinders around the collar.

The entire vehicle is protected by a thin 18mm layer of advance modular armour protection [AMAP], offering roughly 36mm worth of RHAe on the glacis, around 17mm RHAe on the side, and around 8mm in the rear, providing enough protection against small arms, although higher calibre rounds can still penetrate the hull. That said, the system is not designed as a frontline vehicle, and is designed to operate in a protected artillery company. The crew is protected by a thin roof, which forces the rear of the gun to be elevated, but allows the crew protection. The roof is covered by blast shields, while any windows are strong enough to withstand the overpressures and other effects associated with the firing of 254mm mortars.

The G17 can receive accurate information from aerial reconnaissance, and from ground based surface search penetrating radars. Fire and control is normally battery oriented, and a single gun, or a battery, can be called on by infantry and use coordinates to base fire. More modern alternatives include laser targetting and designation, as well as radar and other light based targetting systems, such as ladar and lidar, the former being the most used. That said, the rounds used are normally rocket propelled high explosive bombs, and the G17's nominal enemies include infantry in an open field or enclosed battle, as well as close range, or even point blank, artillery duties against fortifications in urban combat. The large calibre gun can also knock out light armoured fighting vehicles, such as many armoured personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles, and the range of the gun gives the G17 an advantage over similar systems in this case

Artillery Rounds

HE Round

Description: The High Explosive shell is merely an empty casting full of Octagen using a small brazen fuse, although there have been claims that the Reichwehr has issued the same round without the fuze, dispersing it randomly within stockpiles of the round; the idea is to defeat shortstop equipped ordnance.

Range: 80kms [standard]; 30kms [howitzer];

Velocity: Mach 4-6

Warhead: High Explosive

Guidance: Inertial and GPS

DPICM Round

Description: The Extended Range Dual Purpose Improved Conventional Munition is the long range dispenser artillery round of the Reichwehr, able to carry up to seventy-two small anti-armor/personnel grenade submunitions. The round is capable of successfully engaging unarmored vehicles, soft skinned vehicles and personnel, at extremely long ranges, which amount to some forty kilometers for a howitzer and around eighty kilometers to one hundred kilometers for the advance field artillery system. The round is designed with GPS and inertial guidance, and's burst radius has been reduced to ten meters. The round has also been improved upon the XM982 design, incorporated rocket assistance. The anti-armour bomblets can effectively penetrate up to 130mm worth of armour.

Range: 40kms [Howitzer]; 120kms [Field Gun ETC/EM assisted]

Velocity: Mach 4 to Mach 7

Warhead: 72 Anti-Armor or Anti-Personnel Grenade Submunitions

Fire Capabilities: Non Line of Site; Fire and Forget

Guidance: GPS, Inertial, Millimeter Wave

SADARM Round

Description: This Sense and Destroy Armor Munition is an extended program to the M898 munition of the US Army. The round carries a host of anti-armor submunitions that release themselves on top of enemy light armoured vehicles, penetrating the top armour. How it works is that the round uses a parachute like device to slowly fall over the target and at a certain height, dictated by a range of sensors, the round divides into two submunition penetrators that use their own sensors to search and destroy for enemy vehicles. When the target is located the submunition fires an explosively formed penetrator [EFP] at it. Under the best circumstances the TIR.21.155 SADARM has been able to destroy two vehicles with one round.

Range: 35kms [howitzer]; 50kms [artillery]; 80kms [EM or ETC artillery]

Velocity: Mach 4-7; terminal varies

Warhead: Anti-armour submunitions

Guidance: Inertial, GPS and Millimeter Wave

HD Round

Description: The HD shell, just like the TIR.11.155 HE round,l is merely an empty casting full of HD blister gas using a small brazen fuse, although there have been claims that the Reichwehr has issued the same round without the fuze, dispersing it randomly within stockpiles of the round; the idea is to defeat shortstop equipped ordnance.

Range: 80kms [standard]; 30kms [howitzer]; 100kms [Corbulo]

Velocity: Mach 4-6

Warhead: Blister Gas

Guidance: INS, GPS

RAAM Round

Description: The Remote Anti-Armor Munition is designed to be able to carry anti-armor mine munitions far distances, allowing to set up remote mine fields within minutes, especially in the face of an enemy advance. The round, if produced by Kriegzimmer, carries a single type of mine, set off through sensors which detail pressure and proximity, being quite accurate, and rather hard to see and deactivate in time. They are not designed to destroy tanks but rather blow off parts of the tracks, allowing further artillery and other strikes to deal with the now stopped armour. The mine has a 48 hour lifespan.

Range: 30 to 70 kilometers

Velocity: Mach 2 to Mach 5

Warhead: Submunitions; 60 anti-tank mines

Guidance: Inertial and GPS

AFAP Round

Description: The TIR.31 is a nuclear tipped Artillery-Fired Atomic Projectile, with rocket assist, offering it an excellent range. It's a mini tactical nuclear weapon, designed to destroy large amounts of enemy personnel and vehicles within single strikes. The shell has never been used by the Reich forces, although it is always stockpiled as a possibility. The nuclear warhead also use the effect of extended radiation [ER] to increase the killing power of the shell.

Range: 80 Kilometers

Velocity: Mach 6

Warhead: Nuclear [small, 5 -10KT]

Guidance: Inertial, GPS, Millimeter Wave

Panzerschreck Ausf.B Advanced, Fire-and-Forget Anti-Tank Guided-Missile

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Name: Panzerschreck Advanced Fire and Forget Anti Tank Missile

Classification: Anti-Tank Guided Missile

Manufacturer: Stahl Arms

Launch Platform: Shoulder-fired

Length: 1200mm

Diameter: 12.5cm

Weight: 13kg (Missile) 9kg (Firing post)

Speed: 300 m/s

Range (Operational): 4000m

Range (Minimum): 50m

Flight Profile: Top Attack/Direct Attack

Warhead: Tandemn HEAT

Penetration: 850mm

Powerplant: Two-stage solid fuel rocket motor (Boost/sustain)

Guidance: Infrared imaging/short wave infrared electro-optical; fiber optic datalink

Fuse: Contact fused

Price: $10,000 (Firing post) $5,500 (Missile)

Missile comes in a prepacked launch tube and is soft-launched. Launch post consists of thermal night sight and optical day sight (10x magnification), and is capable of being linked to the launcher via a wire if needed to allow for remote launches (multiple wires can be used with the launch post, allowing for multiple missiles to be fired remotely). The shoulder rest also acts as a bipod, folding out and allowing for the shooter to prop the tube up for remote fire. Fiber-optic datalink supplements electro-optical and IIR sensors, allowing for the shooter to update the missile's flight path mid-flight and acquire new targets, also allows for superb accuracy at extended ranges. The missile is also fully capable of fire-and-forget, allowing for the shooter to immediately relocate if needed, and the fire-and-forget mode is fully capable of being initiated mid-flight by the gunner if needed. A tripod is also generally issued with the weapon, allowing for a more stable launch platform. In addition to the ability to destroy targets such as tanks, armored fighting vehicles, and bunkers, Panzerschreckis also capable of attacking rotary and fixed wing aircraft flying at low altitude. A vehicle launched version, designated Panzerschreck, is capable of destroying targets at ranges up to 8000 meters.

StAhl-3 Man-portable Air Defence System

Designation: StAhl-3 Man-portable Air Defence System

Classification: Man Portable Air Defense

Launch Platform: Shoulder-fired

Length: 1.5m

Diameter: 7cm

Weight: 22lb (Missile) 35lb (Complete system)

Speed: Mach 2.4

Range (Operational): 8000m (Seeker head only) 12000m (External tracking systems utilized)

Range (Minimum): 100m

Cieling: 4500m

Warhead: 7lb HE Fragmentation

Powerplant: Two-stage solid fuel rocket motor

Guidance: Infrared imaging/short wave infrared electro-optical; datalink

Fuse: Laser proximity fused/contact fused

Cost: $40,000 per missile ($5,000 for launcher)

Notes: Missile is soft-launched. The seeker head features lock-on after launch (LOAL) capability. Missile is capable of datalinking with friendly units and recieving targetting data from external sources; is most often used in conjunction with light UAVs. Infrared imaging/electro optical seeker makes the MANPAD virtually impossible to spoof with infrared countermeasures. Launcher features optical/electro-optical day/night sight, capable of identifying aerial targets from a distance of 8000m and allowing for the missile to be utilized from this distance.

Focke Air Recon UAV

The Focke Air Recon UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) is a platoon level asset that provides the dismounted soldier with Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA) and laser designation. Total system weight, which includes the air vehicle, a control device, and ground support equipment is less than 51 pounds (23 kg) and is back-packable in two custom MOLLE-type carriers.

This micro air vehicle operates in open, rolling, complex and urban terrains with a vertical take-off and landing capability. It is interoperable with select ground and air platforms and controlled by mounted or dismounted soldiers. The Focke Air Recon uses autonomous flight and navigation, but it will interact with the network and Soldier to dynamically update routes and target information. It provides dedicated reconnaissance support and early warning to the smallest echelons of the Brigade in environments not suited to larger assets.

The Focke Air Recon UAV feeds data to the German soldier's Xenias helmet system. Enemy elements are highlighted in red; while, friendly assets are shown in green.

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The Luftwaffe

The Luftwaffe is the aerospace branch of the German Armed Forces. According to the Imperial Security Act which created the Air Force, "In general the Imperial Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned. It shall be organized, trained, and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations."

Leadership

The Chief of Air Operations — who enjoys the unique rank of High Marshal of the Luftwaffe — effectively reigns from the Air Ministry, located in Berlin. The High Marshal of the Luftwaffe is the President of the Air Force Operations Board. He is joined by the Chief of Air Personnel, the Chief of Aerospace Procurement, and the Chief of Air Supply.

Technology

Lu-27 Condor Interceptor

Statistics:

Type: Interceptor

Produced - 5 Squadrons

Crew: 1 (Pilot)

Wing span: 17.1m

Length: 36.7m

Height: 5.52m

Empty weight: 26,761.9kg

Weapon payload: 1,000kg

Fuel weight: 26,756 kg

Combat Weight: 56,194 kg

Maximum take-off weight: 77,110 kg

Type: 2x Lu-67j-N13 Turbofan-Ramjet Hybrid

Maximum speeds:

1.3 Mach @ Sea level

5.01+ Super cruise

>5.35 @ maximum

Climb rate: 28,000 meters per minute

Maximum altitude: 45,720 m

Internal Bay Pylons: 2

Internal Bay limit: 750 kg each

Airstrip take-off run: 400m

Airstrip landing: >350m

Combat range: 3,600 nautical miles [without refueling]

G load limits: >17g

In-flight Refueling?: yes

Oxygen Generation?: yes

Production costs: 210 million

Price: 320 million USD per unit

Airframe

before the project were commercially available, and in the end the two chosen were polyterimide and polybenzothiazole [PLZ]. Both were chosen for their extreme heat resistance characteristics which would be rather important for the super structure of the aircraft. Both are reinforced primarily by polycarbonate which accounts for even higher heat resistance, while in strategic locations polymer resins also make an appearance. The sister of thermosets, thermoplastics, makes up only one percent [1%] of the aircraft due to the general superiority of thermosets in the ultramodern aerospace industry. There's absolutely no chance that thermoplastics will make a reappearance in airframe technology unless some new thermopolymer is introduced with breathtaking advantages over some newer thermosets. Underneath the thermosets, and making up the majority of the inner walls of the superstructure for a whooping fifteen percent [15%] of the Condor is Rene N6, which made an appearance with the Lu-45 Hawk. The final twenty-two percent [22%] of the airframe is made of hardened steel and other, minor, ingredients that make up links, joints, nuts and bolts, as well as other smaller, but nonetheless vital parts of the aircraft.

The substructure begins at the crest at the back of the aircraft, providing for the majority of the carbon-epoxy used in the substructure. The substructure of the nose of the aircraft is fully aluminum in nature, while the center of the body is constructed of titanium to account for where the engines are placed and where most of the heat occurs. Aluminum accounts for outside areas in the substructure, as well as parts of the back of the substructure. Hardened steel also makes an appearance for the undercarriage of the aircraft where the landing gear is located. The substructure being vital for the survivability of the superstructure, understandably the primary hardened locations of it are under areas of most pressure to avoid a scar in the superstructure. In fact, during the first flight over Arras the substructure near the front of the afterburner tore, collapsing the superstructure and skin of the aircraft causing the end of the prototype to tear off and sending it, in a fire ball, into the dirt some forty thousand meters below.

Most of the aircraft's skin is constructed from carbon-epoxy and titanium; nineteen percent [19%] and twenty-one percent [21%] respectively. The former was used in sheets with the coefficient of thermal expansion being 2.1 for both longitudinal and transverse expansion, with a low compressive strain of .8%, offering itself to be a cheap but resilient composite material for use on the Lu-27 Condor, one of the principal design objectives for the Lu-27 Condor. Thirty-one percent [31%] yet remains aluminum however; specifically, a NiAl superalloy [Nickel based aluminum superalloy]; with twenty-nine percent [29%], or the rest, being a mixture of other components and hardened steel. The skin is laminated on the outside with carbon fiberglass for the sake of more heat resistance, and less important, stealth. Although stealth was never a big goal on the Condor, simply because the velocities achieved don't consider stealth within themselves - thus explaining the decision not to coat it with radar absorbent materials - it was thought that the foreign market and the Empire itself would appreciate the at least limited considerations to stealth.

The air inlets are located on the narrow nose of the Condor. The inner tube doesn't curve at all to allow better flow of air and gasses, and since the engines are rather large, and on the wings, the exposed engines are really irrelevent to the design of the air intakes. The inlets are foward facing, with the outer tubes laminated in a nickel based aluminum alloy to deal both with heat problems and the intense friction of the passing air and gasses. The idea behind the new manufacturing of the lamination is that it's largely modular, allowing the lamination to be replaced easily and inexpensively every fifty flights on average. The air intakes include a one stage diffuser/dual mode and a thermal shroud.

In a general overview the airframe of the Lu-27 Condor has been tested with fly-by-optics testing over Arras, past the three prototypes, and within heat intense testing windtunnels and other rooms, to withstand up to one thousand four hundred degrees celcius of heat, which is rather revolutionary when considering that the Lu-45 Hawk was designed with the then highest rating of one thousand one hundred and twenty degrees celcius of heat resistance.

Engines:

Power Plant:

With a maximum velocity of Mach 5.5, or at least one that was theoritically possible, the engines were of prime importance and there were several historical examples that offered some basis for the design of the Condor's power plant. However, in the end with no early precedent that offered the velocity needed, with the effeciency needed, the Lu-27 Condor was forced to introduce an enhanced version of the turbojet-ramjet hybrid present on the SR-71. In the end, the only thing that could have possibly been done was the exchange from turbojet to turbofan and the 'purification' of the turbofan technology which would make the brunt of the improvements over the original design. The end product was dubbed Lu-67j-N13 hybrid turbofan-ramjet engines. In essense and in basic writing, the engines when the aircraft is stationary leaves the bypass doors open, with the spike inlet foward, with the tertiary doors open and the tailpipe vanes closed. The morphology into high velocity flight would include the inlet spike retracting then moving back foward for restart, and the tailpipe vanes fully open with the suck in doors closed.

Behind the spike inlet the engine, which is basically a glorified turbofan, has been enhanced to be much more effecient at high speeds. Instead of returning to blades, the engine has replaced them with blisks, or more accurately integrally bladed rotors, or IBRs. The blisk is basically a series of airfoils, or blades, attached to a rotor which is attached to the shaft of the engine, and it can be manufactured as a single piece, cutting manufacturing costs in the long run by a hefty amount. The IBR should increase aerodynamics and decrease total weight of the engines. Each airfoil is forged out of gamma tainium aluminide, originally forseen as a future evolution in aircraft turbine engine technology, and now made reality within the Lu-27 Condor. Gamma titanium aluminide, TiAl, is the base for an emerging class of low-cost, low-density alloys with unique properties. Gamma alloys are actually mixtures of the neighboring aluminide phases Ti3Al (alpha-two, hexagonal) and TiAl (gamma, tetragonal). The objectives, which were reached, in gamma alloy development was to increase ductility, oxidation resistance, tensile strength, creep resistance and porcessability. It's light weight characteristics should also ultimately aid in the increase of thrust from the same engine, which is a must in the developement of the Condor. The fans themselves are wide-chord, damperless blisks proven to enhance thrust on aircraft like the Dassault Falcon, which would only enhance high velocity engines like those on the Lu-27 Condor.

The blades are attached through carbon ceramics which provide effective design solutions for robust, axial inserted ceramic blade attachments for production turbines. Contact rig tests were performed during 2015 prototype testing in the Arras Technological Military and Space Exploration Center [ARTMASEC] in which the contact interface was simulated with a MIL-B type ceramic specimen, loaded with a radiused Astroloy indenter; the results were more than favourable, confirming that fast fracture strength was significantly degraded. The vanes were also designed out of ceramic composites with thin nickel based aluminum superalloy (Thymonel 8) airfoils, offering decreased stresses.

Another advance within expansion of the hybrid engine proper was the exchange of oil lubrication with a more advance form of lubrication. The two other possibilities were compressed air lubrication and magnetic lubrication. Foil air bearings would cause the spool shafts to ride along top compressed air, but the heavy load forces engineers to develope the technology further, something that could have taken up to another ten years; obviously, that wasn't an option. So, the second option was chosen instead, magnetic bearings. Although magnetic bearings have always been looked upon in disdain by more conservative engineers the advantages they offer are beyond obvious, and the same idea has been applied to heavier loads, such as tank turrets. As a consequence, magnetic bearings have become viable for engine aircraft and they make their very first appearance on the Lu-27 Condor. Finally, the engines proper have switched their alternators with integral starter-generators and electric actuators. The matured spool technology and the complete avoidance of hydraulics within the engine should allow for greater velocities and less weight.

In order to achieve the high efficiencies demanded of modern combined-cycle generating plants, it is necessary to operate the turbine with high turbine entry temperatures. Currently, gas temperatures at the cobustor exit are around thirteen thousand degrees celcius. The combed effect of thermal barrier coatings and efficient cooling configurations can ensure that metal temperatures remain acceptable with even higher gas temperatures. The proper coating was conceived from NiCrAlYSiTa, a vacuum plasma deposited coating and an air plasma coating. A secondary coating, CrAlYSITa was deposited by cauum plasma spraying.

To increase velocity when using the afterburners the engines also make use of parallel fluidic nozzles. Fixed-geometry fluidic nozzles are an attractive alternative to mechanical thrust-vectoring nozzles. These devices would selectively inject small jets of air or sheets of high-pressure air (bled from the compressor) into the nozzle’s main flow stream to change the nozzle’s flow area and direct the thrust as needed. Because fluidic nozzles would not have any moving parts in direct contact with the hot exhaust jet, they should eventually be much cheaper to design, pro-duce, and maintain. Even when not in afterburn fluidic nozzles should aid disproportionally in reaching hypersonic velocity, and achieving a possible transonic flight pattern.

In terms of thrust each engine produces fifty thousand pound force of thrust, considerably more than the engines of the SR-71, although considerably more expensive. The cost of each engine has been revealed to be around eleven million Reichmarks, meaning that the two engine configuration on the Condor will post the power plant alone at twenty-two million Reichmarks; a before thought ludicrous price, as each turbofan designed before was under five million Reichmarks in design and procurement cost. Nonetheless, with the engine specified, the velocity accounted for should very well be achieved, although gas exhaustion would be equally as costly, obviously.

GF11 Archer Tactical Reconnaissance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Name: GF11 Archer Tactical Reconnaissance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Manufacturer: Goldent Luftwaffe Industries

Length: 5.8 meters

Wingspan: 13.7 meters

Height: 1.8 meters

Data Link:

-Global Positioning System

-Ultra High Frequency

-Ku Frequency

-Line of Sight

-C-band

Sensors:

-Foward Looking Electronic Scanned Array

-Sidelooking Electronic Scanned Array

-Downlooking Bi-static Radar

-Downlooking Pulse Lidar

-Downlooking Gaussian Ladar

-Downlooking Infra-red Receiver

-Downlooking High Definition Camera

Maximum Gross Weight: 730 kilograms

Operational Altitudes: 4000 meters

Velocities:

23 knots @ stall

56 knots @ cruise

70 knots @ dash

Emergency Recover: Parachute

Auto Return Home: Yes [on data link loss]

Autonomy: Full

Engine: Electrical Turboprop

Fuel: 150 Litres

Flight Life: 40 Hours

Runway: 1524 x 38 meters; hard surface

Production Cost: 4.8 million

Purchase Cost per Unit: 15 million

Production Rights Cost: 6.2 billion

Lu-65 Eagle Air Superiority Aircraft

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[specifications (A-variant)]

Produced: 35 Squadrons

Length: 24m

Wingspan: 15m

Height: 4.8m

Empty Weight: 19,800 kg

Fuel Weight: 14,800 kg

Weapons Payload: 8,500 kg

Loaded Weight: 39,500kg

MTOW: 47,500 kg

Speed:

Cruising Speed: Mach 0.8

Max Sea Level: Mach 1.2

Max Supercruise: Mach 1.9

Maximum Speed (A): Mach 2.8

Maximum Speed (B/C): Mach 3.6

G Limits: +13/-5 G

Wing Configuration: Dogtooth delta+Ruddervators+Canards

Wing Type: Mission Adaptive Wings + Foam Fuel Tanks

Ranges:

Ferry Range: 4,200 km

Ferry Range (Extra fuel tanks): 5,500 km

Combat Radius: 1,860 km

Service Ceiling: 21,500m

Climb Rate: 20,250 m/min

Weapons Layout: 1x Internal bay, 2x Side bay, 4x Wing pylons

Internal Bay Payload: 3,000 kilograms

Internal Bay Slots: 10 slots [larger AAMs take up more slots]

Side Bay Payload: 300 kilograms

Side Bay Slots: 1

Total Internal Payload: 3,600 kilograms

[General Data]

Type: Advanced Air Superiority Fighter

Personnel: 1 (Pilot)

[Airframe]

Where the “Xeon” made use of switchblade-style variable geometry wings to maximize maneuverability, the Hawk uses an even more unconventional design to achieve similar levels of performance while simultaneously reducing RADAR Cross Section [RCS] as demanded by Project goals. To this end, the Lu-65 employs a unique airframe layout that reconciles the conflict between stealth and maneuverability. The configuration of the Lu-65 is a radically new one, which utilizes dogtoothed mission adaptive wings paired with canards and flat ruddervators aft of the fighter. This unorthodox design choice generated significant controversy during the Project’s progression, which led to the separate development of another soon to be released fighter. However, this risky decision proved to be a sound one as evidenced in the Lu-65s amazing flight performance. This stems from the design’s inherent aerodynamic instability, which enables the Lu-65 unimpeded freedom of maneuver. However, this benefit also involves significant penalties in ease of control – the Lu-65 requires an extremely high level of pilot proficiency to operate effectively, even with its use of fly-by-light electronic control systems. The mission adaptive wings in fighter are another aspect in which the fighter stands apart from its peers - unlike conventional designs, the adaptive wing has no conventional ailerons, flaps, slats, or spoilers but incorporates flexible leading and trailing edges able to bend into a required position without leaving gaps. These are able to move from four degrees up to twenty five degrees down as enabled by its variable wing camber mechanism. Finally, the fighter is endowed with exceptional performance at high angles of attack due to its forward fuselage chine and canards, and additionally exhibits minimal drag due to its lack of vertical surfaces. In sum, the Lu-65s aerodynamic design is optimized for the air superiority mission by both reducing vulnerability to detection and ensuring superior agility.

The Lu-65 Advanced Air Superiority Fighter incorporates the highest quality of materials science in its physical frame. As derived from preliminary studies and evaluation, the fighter was designed to endure stresses of up to 13Gs, as this is the maximum level a human pilot may withstand before tissue damage occurs. The space-age materials used in the fighter were all jointly developed by the associated contractors involved in Lu-65s development, as were fabrication methods. Much of the fighter is manufactured from composite materials, due to their role in reducing RCS – one of the main goals of the Project. The skeleton of the Lu-65 is constructed from Ti-1100, a near-alpha, high strength/weight ratio titanium alloy. Monofilament silicon carbide whiskers are interwoven within a matrix of this material to impart further structural integrity and resistance to deformation. High stress regions of the airframe are reinforced with Ti-62222 alloy, most notably in areas near the variable wing camber mechanism. SICON-developed RADAR Absorbent Structure [RAS] is mated wherever possible to this base frame. The RAS is constructed of honeycombed Kevlar sections, treated with a proprietary carbon glaze, and then bonded to polyethylene/carbon fiber skins on its front and back, creating a rigid panel. Each honeycomb is 3cm in length, and absorbs incoming RF energy quite well; the relatively large gaps allow for the RAS to dependably absorb or at least weaken RADAR returns of all frequencies higher than 10 MHz. Further, new engineering techniques courtesy of MP Ordnance Corporation have allowed for improvements to the base aramid honeycomb design originally developed by TPMI/EC – the inner walls of the honeycombs are injected with a carbon-based aerogel impregnated with various RF energy absorbing compounds [see Stealth section]. The properties of this material are such that incoming RF energy is scattered further into the RAS network, which further reduces the Lu-65's already minimal RCS. For protection from hostile action, composite sandwich panels of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fiber, thermosets, and carbon fiber embedded in an epoxy resin matrix is bonded underneath this shell. The aircraft is skinned in a composite comprised of silicone reinforced, Schiff base salt-loaded bismaleimide resin threaded with carbon fiber, which possesses superb strength to weight ratios and a resistance to thermal stress. Uncatalyzed Michael addition with polyhydric phenols to the base resin improves structural characteristics. The dissolved Schiff base salt elements, using the bismelmide resin matrix as a binder compound, serve to further reduce the Lu-65's RCS.

[systems/Avionics]

The Lu-65 boasts an exceptionally robust and capable avionics fit, an example of the avant-garde technology that Project "Eagle" championed from its conception to completion. Design of the Lu-65 Advanced Air Superiority Fighter’s electronics components was entirely mission-oriented – the various systems that comprise Lu-65 are finely engineered to maximize the ability of pilot and machine to engage in aerial combat against any potential threat or target. All of the various disparate elements of Lu-65 electronics are unified under the Mark 3 Integrated Modular Architecture, which is the fighter’s distributed on-board computer network. Mark 3 serves to coordinate and control mission-sensitive information to the pilot on a tightly integrated software and hardware platform. The architecture is fabricated on strained silicon wafers – an innovation of TPMI/EC that enables 33% faster processing speeds than competing designs. Developed as a method to reduce the impact of physical barriers to continued transistor miniaturization, the strained silicon wafers are produced by growing a sequence of epitaxial layers of varying lattice constants (the distance between atoms in the crystal formation). The approach that is utilized for silicon wafer starting material is to first grow a silicon epitaxial layer containing germanium. When enough germanium is added and this epitaxial layer reaches a critical thickness, the lattice constant of the silicon-germanium (SiGe) epitaxial layer will stabilize at a larger lattice constant value than the underlying silicon substrate. Then a thin silicon layer is grown on top of the SiGe epitaxial layer. Eventually, the pure silicon layer stretches to match the larger lattice constant of the SiGe layer. The physical properties of this unique material enable significantly reduced electron resistance, which thereby leads to 70% faster electron flow. This allows for the incredible boost in processing performance that the Mark 3 exhibits.

The Mark 3 architecture is manufactured in a full-custom ASIC design, utilizing revolutionary Quasi-Delay Insensitive integrated circuits. The use of asynchronous processing logic in the Lu-65 eagle provides several major benefits as compared to traditional versions (circuits governed by an internal clock); these include early completion of circuits when it is known that the inputs which have not yet arrived are irrelevant, lower power consumption because transistors do not work unless performing useful computations, superior modularity and composability, adaptable circuit speed based on temperature and voltage conditions (synchronous chips are locked in at optimal clock speed for worst-case conditions), easier manufacturing processes due to lack of transistor-to-transistor variability, and less produced Electro-Magnetic Interference (Synchronous circuits create enormous amounts of EMI at frequency bands near clock frequencies). The entire avionics suite is coordinated by five MP Ordnance Corporation-manufactured Central Integrated Processors [CIP], which are 4096-core processors running at 4.45 GHz, with 64 bits allocated per core and 12 GB of RAM allocated per processor. The Lu-65's subsystems are connected to the CIP via a quadruplex-redundant InfiniBand high-speed bus interface. This is a fiber optic cable network with a passive-transmissive star coupler operating at 3.75 GHz, with transfer rates of up to 48Gbit/s, developed in order to allow for the high levels of system bandwidth the Lu-65;s sensors and electronics consume. Because the integrated circuits operate under asynchronous logic, signals and instructions are processed near-instantaneously, without consideration for the restraints of a clock circuit.

A key component of the Lu-65’s principles of design mandated absolute systems reliability; engineers at Luftwaffe Precision Machine Import/Export Corporation quickly realized that the traditional way of ensuring systems reliability, by stacking on layers of redundancy, was outmoded; such measures provided little more than "get you home" capability, if that. Ultimately, it was decided that the best way of raising the Lu-65s mission reliability was to modify the overarching Mark 3 architecture in such a way that it could "repair" itself. In effect, the complexity of the structure is such that it can automatically bypass or even compensate for the failure of any individual element. For example, if a control surface fails, the unified flight control system used in Lu-65i will automatically reconfigure itself, distributing control functions among the surviving surfaces.

The Mission Management Suite subsystem of the Mark 3 is composed of the terrain/navigation suite, fire-control, munitions management and Electronic Warfare equipment. CIP resources are allocated to each function as necessary.

CDI-1 – Integrated navigational system of the Lu-65, developed in order to reduce pilot workload. Where previous avionics systems treated the myriad location-determining sensors of an aircraft as a discrete source of information, CDI-1 serves to manage the data gathered by each individual system and present it to the pilot in a coherent way. CDI-1 includes two primary sources of navigational information – an Inertial Reference System and a Terrain Reference System calibrated against each other to provide for unmatched accuracy in location.

The Terrain Reference System relies on careful measurement of the terrain profile passing beneath the aircraft with a RADAR altimeter and comparison with digitally-stored geographic data. The primary advantage to using a TR system is that a standard TF (terrain-following) navigation scheme will alert enemy Electronic Surveillance Measures far sooner, due to the RADAR beam's direction. On the other hand, a TRN altimeter has an extremely narrow beam width whose energy is directed downwards, rendering virtually all ESM measures impotent, a critical component of the eagle’s survivability.

The Inertial Reference System is comprised of two ring laser gyroscopes and an accelerometer located in the forward fuselage, coupled with GPS uplinks compatible with most standard satellite interfaces. Only one of the gyroscopes is necessary for normal operation; data from the second is fed to the Lu-65’s fire control systems to automatically adjust gun position for optimal accuracy.

MMTE-10 - Integrated fire control system of the Lu-65, which monitors all phases of weapons release. Data from the Sensor Management Suite is linked to this component, which constantly updates the pilot’s interface on target disposition and type. It draws on CIP resources to rapidly calculate suitable firing solutions. The MMTE-9 also functions to inform the pilot of the condition of the fighter's stores, control weapons launch sequences, as well as door controls and emergency weapons jettison.

NSER-5 - Integrated Electronic Warfare System of the Lu-65. It is comprised of a number of individual subsystems, all of which are closely tied to the MMS component via the InfiniBand high-speed bus interface. Threat detection is provided by a super heterodyne RADAR Warning Receiver, capable of monitoring LPI emissions through rapid signals processing of all major RF bands. NSER-5 also features a Laser Warning Receiver, which detects laser radiation and determines its bearing, one of the more popular guidance methods employed in modern missiles. In order to quickly track missile launches the NSER-5 incorporates three Missile Approach Warners, built into a set of apertures distributed across the aircraft. To increase the effectiveness of the system the MAW is also directly linked to the countermeasures systems allowing an instantaneous response to a local launch. The MAWs include a set of Rayleigh scattering processing modules, which serves to greatly improve resolution and accuracy regarding threat disposition.

Active countermeasures equipment is fitted to the Lu-65 in a series of modular apertures.

The ADN-2 infrared jammer makes use of a gimbal-mounted low-powered microwave laser to detect and jam incoming IR missiles. In order to preserve stealth characteristics, transparent lens covers manufactured from selectively permeable plastic serves to shield the device from RADAR visibility when not in use. The system is capable of jamming multiple IR and UV frequencies simultaeneously to provide improved performance.

The EOCM-6 is a pod-mounted blue-green laser used to detect and jam passive systems such as TV/FLIR automatic trackers.

The NRV-27 is the Lu-65's RF jammer which serves to emit radio frequency signals that interfere with hostile transmitter operation. The “smart skin” antenna embedded in the Lu-65's airframe enables the NRV-27 to engage in DRFM (digital radio frequency memory) jamming in addition to standard noise jamming modes. In the DRFM mode, the Lu-65's manipulates received radar energy and retransmits it to change the return the hostile RADAR sees. This technique serves to provide conflicting and confusing information for enemy interpretation. For example, the NRV-27 may change the range the transmitter detects through alterations in the delay in pulse transmission or the velocity the radar detects by changing the doppler shift of the transmitted signal.

An XC-100 countermeasures dispenser is internally mounted, which is programmed to deploy multi-spectral chaff and flares only in the direction of a threat as determined by the NSER-5. The flares are treated with chemical additives that spoof the IR sensors of most IR guided missiles. Additionally, data from the NSER-5’s RWR set is linked to the chaff cutting mechanism – the XC-100 is sophisticated enough to interpret the RWR’s information and cut the aluminium strips to provide for maximum reflectivity to the RF band being deceived.

In practical terms, the NSER-5 serves to determine the location and nature of all threat systems, thereby warning aircrew when they are being tracked, targeted, or engaged.

The Sensor Management Suite subsystem of the Mark 3 package combines the Lu-65's RADAR, IRST, integrated signal processing, encrypted data, communications, and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System interface, allocating CIP processor power to the sensor subsystems as required by the mission. With the advanced, centralized architecture employed by the avionics, the SMS implements sensor fusion for the pilot to maximize situational awareness and reduce pilot workload. By automating the task of interpreting sensor data, the Lu-65 removes the possibility of conflicting data gathered by the various sensors and eliminates the need for manual cross-referencing.

AN/PSI-7 - RADAR system for the Lu-65, co-developed by Luftwaffe Precision Machine Import/Export Corporation and MP Ordnance Corporation. It is an Active Electronically Scanned Array system, mounted in the aircraft's nose, with sufficient Moving Target Indicator capability to achieve burn-through of 5th generation (F-22 level) stealth. Maximum search range of fighter-sized targets is estimated at 270 kilometers – however, the AN/PSI-7 may increase this range to 450 kilometers, though this comes at the cost of a much narrower field of view.

The AN/PSI-7's transmitter and receiver functions are composed of 3,300 individual transmit/receive (T/R) modules that each scan a small fixed area, negating the need for a moving antenna, which further decreases ESM detection probabilities as well as aircraft volume issues. Each of the T/R modules is composed of four MMIC chips - a drive amplifier, digital phase shifter, and low-noise amplifier, and a RF power amplifier. The chips are manufactured on indium-phosphide due to greater electron mobility, reduced noise, and higher frequencies of operation InP affords as opposed to more conventional semiconductor materials. To protect the antenna from detection by hostile ESM systems, it is mounted in a bandpass radome, transparent only to the band of frequencies used by the AN/PSI-7. When it is not in use, suitable electrical impulses turn the bandpass characteristic off, making it totally opaque.

The RADAR's elimination of hydraulics for antenna movements and distribution of transmission functions into the T/R modules alleviates logistical concerns. The AN/PSI-6 is a No Probability of Interception system, meaning that the waveforms of the RADAR have a much longer pulse and lower amplitude, as well as a narrower beam and virtually no sidelobe radiation. The result of this waveform modification is that the AN/PSI-7 is virtually undetectable by enemy ESM receivers, as the RF energy emitted is spread over a wide range of frequencies, hiding among the noise of benign signals that clutter the microwave region. A tertiary data channel screens hostile ECM measures.

AN/RSI-1 - Inverse Synthetic Aperture RADAR of the Lu-65 which processes the Doppler shift resulting from target motion as a means of improving RADAR resolution. Thanks to shared components with the AN/PSI-7, the AN/RSI-1 is highly compact, and adds less than 30 lbs to the aircraft's weight. By measuring the much larger Doppler shifts created by the Lu-65's own motion and the target's changes in attitudes, the AN/RSI-1 is able to extract the Doppler effects due to pitch, yaw, and roll of the different parts of the target aircraft, processing these to obtain a clear physical profile. This information is cross-referenced against a database of known aircraft types and presented to the pilot.

IECO-5 – Integrated electro-optical sensor system mounted beneath the forward fuselage. The package serves as a laser rangefinder to supplement the primary RADAR/IR sensors employed by the Lu-65 during close range engagements. The pod-mounted ytterbium-doped fiber optic laser assembly is slaved to the pilot’s fire control system, and increases onboard weapons accuracy by a significant factor. When not in use, the system is retracted to preserve stealth and aerodynamic characteristics.

ISTA - Imaging Infra-red passive sensor suite of the Lu-65, located on the port side of the fighter’s canopy. The ISTA package scans across red-scale wavelengths from 2.4-13 microns to enable all-aspect detection capabilities. The sensor is cooled via Freon gas, which allows for the system to interpret finer temperature gradients across longer distances. Estimated range for ISTA is quoted at 150 km in optimal conditions. All data gathered by the system is post-processed by the Sensor Management Suite to enhance resolution. The Lu-65’s onboard computers incorporate sufficient processing power to track up to 400 individual signatures, although this may be increased even further with the use of external aids such as airborne control aircraft.

ICNIA - Integrated Communication Navigation Identification Avionics suite, which combines the functions of current communications equipment, such as HF SSB (High Frequency-Single Side Band), VHF/UHF, SINCGARS, Have Quick, EJS, JTIDS, various navigational aids and transponder/interrogator facilities compatible with NATO-standard IFF systems. Based on common digital and RF processing modules built up from asynchronous logic circuits, the system allows for all these functions to be seamlessly built into just one package. It also takes up half the volume and weight of the aforementioned equipment. The Central Integrated Processors filter much of the information being passed to the pilot, presenting him with only data necessary for the phase for the mission currently being flown, to prevent information overload (optional manual override available).

The Vehicle Management Suite is responsible for $@pit controls and displays, flight and maneuver control, and engine/power control.

NACS Mk. III - Lu-65 is controlled by a centralized fly by light fiber optic system that takes both control input from the pilot and feedback from the various sensors and control surfaces around the airplane. Due to the critical role aircraft response times play in the air superiority mission, a FBL control scheme was chosen for the Lu-65. More importantly however, fly-by-light offers an attractive alternative to interference prone fly-by-wire systems. The popularity of EMI-based air defense weapons was not lost on TPMI/EC designers; thus, the NACS Mk. III is nearly immune to such errorneous behavior caused by outside sources. Additionally, the flight envelope characteristics of the Lu-65 are programmed into the system, which prevents the pilot from engaging in maneuvers which would induce a total loss of control. A manual override is available, though its use is not recommended. Should the aircraft depart its flight envelope for any reason, however, a failsafe switch in the $@pit may be engaged that will cause the NACS Mk. III to automatically return the aircraft to level flight. Finally, the system is adaptable to irregularities in instructions due to malfunction by reconfiguring itself and biasing the pilot’s controls to compensate. All motors utilized in the flight system are brushless, which improves efficiency, reliability, and reduces generated EMI levels. The electronic control modules for the motors are manufactured by MP Ordnance Corporation.

UCS – Utilities Control System, which manages and automates the various mechanical utilities found aboard the Lu-65 including primary and backup electrical systems, hydraulics (for aircraft control actuators, brakes, nose wheel steering, intakes, et al.), fuel stores and climate controls in the $@pit.

AEAD - Active Electronic Array Device, which is embedded in the outer skin. This functions as a core component of the Lu-65's avionics suite. It is comprised of embedded arrays of microscopic active transmitting elements, which are unified by the Vehicle Management Suite. Signals processing from the CIPs enable these integrated elements to act like the active elements of a phased array antenna. This permits the Lu-65 Advanced Air Superiority Fighter to sense and communicate in optical and other frequency bands, and in any direction from any aircraft attitude. Software developed by TPMI/EC enables all Lu-65's in flight to share target and system data via the AEAD interface, which allows pilots greater freedom for autonomous action. In addition, the distributed nature of the AEAD allows for unrivaled accuracy with regard to threat observation – the sensors may quickly identify the distance and bearing of hostile transmitter sites by coordinating information gathered by the Lu-65's RWR with the precise location that hostile RF signals impact the airframe.

[Canopy]

The layout of the $@pit systems were of paramount concern to the design team. Intended to maximize situational awareness for the pilot, displays and flight symbology are fully automated by the Mark 3 Vehicle Management System, with processing power for sensor system integration drawn from one CIP specifically assigned to this purpose. Use of the InfiniBand high-speed bus interface allows for the high level of system bandwidth required for this application. The Lu-65 features a fully digital, all-glass $@pit that has eliminated the confusing switches and dials of previous $@pit designs - this improves the effectiveness of the pilot by allowing him to concentrate on his mission, rather than his equipment.

The centerpiece of the $@pit avionics is a wide angle, 6 in. tall Heads-Up-Display. It is reinforced with vulcanized rubber and has minimal framing to preserve pilot visibility over the aircraft's nose. The system is capable of rendering a full range of flight and mission-critical information. TPMI/EC control software automates the displays and makes available to the pilot vital information useful to the phase of a sortie being flown at a time. The operator of the Lu-65 may also queue up additional displays on the HUD or multifunction head-down displays through an intuitive touchscreen interface. All data outputs from the Mark 3 avionics subsystems are made available to the pilot through the $@pit's AMLCD screens. The integration of these traditionally disparate elements through the Mark 3 serves to greatly enhance a pilot's situational awareness and combat effectiveness. For example, the data extracted from the CDI-1 navigational system allows for an astonishingly accurate "God's-eye-view" of the terrain surrounding the Lu-65 at a point in time. Integration of CDI-1 with the Sensor Management Suite enables targeting symbology to be directly overlaid onto this map, thus providing a pilot with an unprecedented level of control over the battlespace.

There are limitations to the HUD/MFD combination however; it forces a pilot to look straight ahead in order to receive information about his aircraft and its surroundings, which leaves him vulnerable to attack at points all around him. As a result, the Lu-65 features a set of Helmet Mounted Displays in the pilot's flight helmet. The helmet itself is an advanced, self-contained unit comprising the HMD, night vision equipment, microphone and headphones, and oxygen mask. Thanks to advancements in engineering techniques pioneered by TPMI/EC, the system is 20% lighter than previous-generation helmets even with the addition of the integrated electronic equipment, and provides the same level of protection. The HMD projects critical information onto a semi-reflective transparent visor in front of the pilot, and shares the symbology library used in the the HUD and MFDs. Additionally, motion-tracking capabilities are built into the flight helmet with a full six-degrees of freedom. This is linked to the MMTE-10 component of the Mark 3 avionics package, and allows for a pilot to cue up a weapon and engage targets from very-high off-boresight angles.

During simulator studies of the Lu-65, TPMI/EC engineers found that pilots were unable to access their touchscreens during high-G manuevers. In order to rectify this issue, a direct voice input system was developed for the fighter. The DVI system incorporates advanced voice recognition techniques that enable it to respond to commands with a latency of only 80ms with an accuracy rate of over 99.7%. Additionally, it is able to interpret the pilot's voice even when distorted by the stresses of air combat manuevering or G-forces. The use of DVI enables a pilot to look down at his MFDs for a minimum of time, thereby improving his situational awareness through a significant reduction in pilot workload.

Computerized Associate:

The Lu-65 includes a "computerized associate", essentially a primitive artificial intelligence that serves as a combination of copilot and backseater. Allegedly designated the Advanced Mission-supporting Intelligent Assistant or AMIA, the AI is believed to improve the situational awareness and survivability of the fighter through a number of autonomous functions. The pilot is, according to accounts from defectors, hooked up to health sensors which monitor blood pressure, pulse rate, breathing patterns, and electrical activity in the brain. Should the system determine that the pilot is incapacitated, due to red/blackout or other reasons, AMIA will automatically seize control and attempt to fly a safe, evasive route back to its pre-programmed base location. AMIA is also able to execute simple oral commands given by the pilot, such as display switching, stores management, or changing radio frequencies. Most interesting of all is AMIA's electronic warfare and countermeasures support functions, however. It is capable of intelligently analyzing strength, frequency, and location of hostile sensor sites through a data highway connection with the Sensor Management Suite. AMIA will render a display of these locations, estimate range of detection relative to the TF-70A+'s location, and advise navigational course for the pilot so as to evade detection. Also, AMIA is capable of limited assistance during offensive or defensive manuevering. For example, if the Missile Alert Warner systems detect a launch, AMIA will automatically cycle the NRV-27 RF jammer to the frequency band tracking the fighter and advise the pilot to activate said equipment. The flight envelope characteristics of the TF-70A+ are also programmed into AMIA's database allowing the AI to advise specific manuevers in response to a given situation.

[stealth]

Design studies conducted by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency indicated that any successor would require significant reductions in RADAR, IR, and electro-magnetic signatures to remain competitive in the air superiority mission. Air Service doctrine places its core emphasis on a pilot’s ability to achieve the first look and the first shot with regard to aerial combat – the DARPA investigation found that the best way to achieve this goal was to engineer the Lu-65 with low-observable characteristics that would enable the fighter to remain hidden from view until the pilot could engage his own missiles.

The unique shape and airframe design reflects this concern in a profound manner. The fighter has no vertical surfaces, and the angles incorporated on all horizontal leading and trailing edges are kept as different as possible, thereby dumping the reflected RF energy to the fighter’s port and starboard sectors. This results in large, but narrow RADAR signature spikes that are extremely difficult to track effectively. Lu-65 exhibits a high degree of wing/body blending, which provides desirable aerodynamic characteristics such as improved lift, while also reducing RCS by allowing electrical surface currents to flow over the surfaces without interruption.

The sharp wing sweep increases the amount by which RF energy is shifted away from the forward sector. However, the resulting configuration leads to the possibility of "traveling waves", RF energy flowing on the skin of an object, to be set up. These waves can re-radiate a great deal of RF energy if they meet discontinuities such as seams, gaps or changes in surface material. To attenuate the issue, the Lu-65's mission adaptive wing was used and all other discontinuities were either eliminated or sealed off with electrically conducting material. Ultimately, the traveling waves meet an unavoidable discontinuity, where the structure physically ends, but the amount of re-radiated RF energy is minimized by the extensive use of RF absorbers on the fighter’s skin. Other physical features have been redesigned so as to provide much less RF reflection, such as the S-curvature of the intake ducts.

The Lu-65 makes extensive use of an advanced RF absorbing material known as Schiff base salt. Derived from research by Carnegie-Mellon University, the material, which is a fine black powder physically resembling graphite, consists of a long chain of carbon atoms with alternating double and single bonds and a nitrogen atom interrupting the string near one end. The chain carries a positive charge, associated largely with the nitrogen atom. A negatively charged 'counterion,' made up of varying composition depending on the specific salt, sits nearby, weakly connected to the chain. The counterion prefers to sit in one of two locations near the chain. A single photon easily dislodges the counterion from one location and forces it into the other. A short time later, the molecule relaxes, and the counterion returns to its original position. Notably, certain salts required a very small amount of energy to shift the counterion - they could be triggered by RADAR energy of certain frequencies. As a result, the Schiff base salts are able to absorb radio waves, and dissipate the energy as heat. This unique property is fully exploited in the fighter’s construction - a mixture of salts tuned to surveillance frequency bands most often employed by air to air RADAR systems (X, L, etc.) are dissolved in the fighter’s bismelmide resin skin and aerogel chambers. The SBS class of materials is additionally 90% lighter than previous-generation ferromagnetic absorbers, and extremely inexpensive to fabricate.

Supplementing the SBS in reducing RCS is an epoxyide applied to the airframe that reduces RADAR return through the use of non-organic microparticle absorbers embedded in the resin binder. Production of the material begins by coating 5-75 micron alumina spheres with a thin layer of silver and exposing the particles to selenium vapor at high temperature. The selenium reacts with the silver coating, which forms a film of silver selenide over the alumina sphere. This is loaded into the epoxyide matrix on a weight ratio of 1:1, which serves to enhance structural strength. Comprehensive studies into the absorptive qualities of the epoxyide appliqué indicate phenomenal performance – the silver selenide coated microparticles were found to reduce RCS by an astounding 20-25 decibels across the radio frequency range of 5-20 GHz. Also, the appliqué material shields the RADAR-transparent skin from being illuminated by hostile transmitters.

The exact RCS of the Lu-65 is classified; however, released data indicates a reduction of at least a full order of magnitude as compared to the F-22 Raptor in most aspects.

In order to reduce electro-magnetic signature, the avionics bays built into the Lu-65a re treated with Electric Wave Absorbing Material, developed by TPMI/EC. EWAM is a six-layer, non-woven cloth comprised of stainless steel and polyethyl fibers. The material is applied to the inner walls of the electronics housing in the Eagle, and serves to eliminate electro-magnetic leakage from the on-board equipment. Under laboratory conditions, EWAM absorbs 99% of all emitted EM radiation, and serves to reduce the vulnerability of the Lu-65 to passive electromagnetic sensor detection.

[Powerplant]

The /MRF-09's AFE-118 engines are manufactured by MP Ordnance Corporation. The AFE-118 is an advanced variable bypass turbofan capable of supercruise without the use of an afterburner. At its maximum output at 15,000 meters, it delivers 206.8 kilonewtons of thrust per engine, for a total of 413.6 kilonewtons of thrust. This is enough to propel the Lu-65 to a maximum speed of Mach 2.9 in the Airforce configuration and Mach 3.6 in the Naval configuration. The reason for this discrepancy in speed is because the Airforce version of the AFE-118 has narrower intakes with a more deeply curved inlets, which results in a lower radar cross section as there less of a chance that radar can detect the plane's spinning fans. The Naval version of the AFE-118 has wider, larger intakes with a more gradual curve in the inlet that allows for better, more efficient airflow to the engine, thus increasing both its efficiency and performance. The cost is that the Naval version has a slightly increased RCS vs. the Airforce version. Both versions of the engine have their moving parts, such as the fan and integrally bladed compressor rings forged from single crystal titanium/cobalt metal matrices glazed with a thin layer of silicon carbide DCP cermets which acts as a thermal barrier coating. The same silicon carbide DCP cermets line the engine housing and exhaust vents as well, in order to prevent excess heat from being absorbed by the airframe itself. The intakes themselves have a flexible, mission adaptive lining that can self-adjust in order to modify the engine's bypass ratio, thus allowing for the engine to achieve maximum performance at all speeds and altitudes. The engine utilizes a counterflow thrust vectoring unit that allows for true 3d thrust vectoring without nozzles. The counterflow unit allows for thrust to be directed up to 25 degrees in any direction. The exhaust units are smokeless and do not leave any contrails.

In terms of maintenance, the engine can be accessed from either the top or bottom for easy removal. Like the F-119 used in the F-22 Raptor, the engine can be broken down into 6 modular parts and any of the modules easily replaceable. Also, the diagnostic software built into the plane's engine simplifies identification of malfunctions and other problems.

[Armament]

Main Bay

Primary armament for the Lu-65 is carried internally in order to reduce RCS and improve aerodynamic performance. The Lu-65 utilizes Reich Aerospace's SADS-M weapon system in order to allow for the aircraft to fire its payload stealthily. Drawing on experience from the Advanced Reduced Signature Aircraft Ordinance Delivery System that was fielded before . SADS-M is a modular system based on the highly successful design. Like SADS, it launches its ordinance rather unconventionally: the weapon system utilizes an semi-maneuverable undercarriage that is lowered out from beneath the aircraft while firing. The system is designed to allow for the aircraft to maintain a high degree of stealth while launching ordinance. Rather than using a conventional bay that, when open, presents enemy RADAR operators with a signature, the undercarriage system lowers slightly from within its own bay (just small enough to accommodate the undercarriage), and can launch up to five medium range air-to-air missiles from five separate launch tubes.

Missile launches are aided via electro-magnetic coils and a high powered jet of compressed air, propelling the missiles out of the tubes, allowing for their engines to start a good distance from the aircraft. This means that the aircraft can remain better hidden, even when launching missiles. This also allows for ordinance to be launched during supersonic flight.

The primary difference between ARSADS and ARSADS-M comes in the principle of modularity.

Unlike ARSADS, the undercarriage system of ARSADS-M is designed to be quickly and easily removed by ground crews, allowing for each undercarriage to be easily swapped out. This adds a great amount of flexibility to the Lu-65, allowing for undercarriage systems designed to accommodate different types of air-to-air and air-to-ground munitions (for example, an ARSADS-M undercarriage may be equipped to fire sixteen short range air-to-air missiles, or one equipped to launch a pair of 2000lb laser guided bombs; the possibilities are endless) to be utilized by the aircraft. Generally, the operation of ARSADS-M is as follows: upon returning from a sortie, the undercarriage of the Lu-65 would be removed by the ground crew and replaced with a freshly loaded undercarriage configured to carry whichever type of ordnance is required for the mission. The spent undercarriage would then be reloaded with whichever type of missile it is designed to accommodate and reused, replacing an empty undercarriage on returning fighters.

Side Bay(s)

Secondary armament consists of two short-range air to air missiles carried in a pair of scaled down ARSADS-M launch carriages located to the sides of the intakes. Data from the ISTA infrared imaging suite is fed directly to the missiles for initial guidance, which allows for stealthier launch - instead of requiring their seekers to acquire the target in the slipstream, the weapons may be ejected as soon as the doors open.

Cannon

The Lu-65 Advanced Air Superiority Fighter makes use of the ACAG-331, a twin barreled 25x200mm Gast gun.

Operation: Essentially, the recoil from the discharge of one of the barrels will chamber another round in the other barrel. The gun is fed from two 150 round linkless belts. The gun can adjust its direction of feed by switching the belt pawls and reversing the bolt switch, allowing for cannons on different aircraft to be easily switched out. If one of the barrels fails, the other one can operate as a standard linear operated cannon, although at a far reduced firing rate.

Ammunition: The gun fires high velocity combustible case telescoping ammunition of various types. A unique type of ammunition fired by the gun is the armor piercing combustible sabot ammunition. The sabots are designed to disintegrate after leaving the muzzle, which ensures that they are not ejected into the Lu-65's intakes.

Barrels: The barrels are stellite lined with a bore evacuator in the middle to prevent fouling from being deposited in the barrel. Each barrel liner has a life of ~4,000 rounds. The end of each barrel is fitted with a recoil booster, in order to increase the rate of fire and somewhat reduce firing signature. Also, the barrels are ridged so as to disperse heat more efficiently.

Fire Control: The ACAG-331 is coordinated by the MMTE-10 electronics component, which integrates data from the inertial navigation system and Sensor Management Suite subsystems to automatically track and engage targets with superb precision. An override for manual targeting is also available in case of malfunction or pilot preference.

ACAG-331 Specifications:

Type: Twin Barreled Automatic Cannon

Ammunition: 25x200mm alternating HV/CTA HE

Operation: Gast principle.

Length: 3m

Barrel Length: 2.3m

System Weight: 86 kg.

V0 (HE): 1,400 m/s

V0 (AP): 1,670 m/s

V0 (APCS): 2,100 m/s

Round Weight (HE): 650 grams

Round Weight (AP): 605 grams

Round Weight (APCS): 580 grams

Effective Range: 3.5-4 km

Maximum Range: 8-9 km

RPM: 3600 rounds per minute, 1800 rounds per minute per barrel.

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Lu-67 Advanced Tactical Fighter

[specifications]

Type: Multi-role Fighter Aircraft

Contractor(s): Imperial Aerospace Corporation, GEM Aerospace

Personnel: 1 (Pilot)

Produced: 30 Squadrons

Length: 16.2m

Wingspan: 12.2m

Height: 4.2m

Empty Weight: 10,200 kg

Loaded Weight: 16,800 kg

MTOW: 23,820 kg

Speed:

Cruising Speed: Mach 0.8

Max Supercruise: Mach 1.4

Max Speed: ~Mach 2.3

G Limits: +10.5/-4 G

Wing Configuration: Trapezoidal diamond in combination with ruddervators canted at 45 degrees, forward horizontal canards + one downward-pointing vertical canard beneath the forward fuselage. Airfoils are supercritical and mission-adaptive.

Ranges:

Ferry Range: 3,550 km

Combat Radius: 1,210 km

Service Ceiling: 19,820 m

Engines: 2x Imperial Aerospace D/VPCBT-2A Variable Post Compression Bypass Turbofan, providing 108kN thrust ea.

Cannon: D/ACU.230A 23x135mm CTA Gast Gun

Payload: 6,800kg max

[Airframe]

The Advanced Tactical Fighter’s construction and aerodynamic design is an evolution of the Lu-65, much like the overall development program. Requirements surveys conducted for Project essentially called for the preservation of the basic concepts behind the predecessor design – that of stealth and agility – and accentuating these characteristics through the introduction of newer materials processing and fabrication technologies. Although superficially similar to the older aircraft, the Lu-67 represents a dramatic increase in mission capability with its incorporation of the latest advancements in aeronautical science. However, Lu-67 remains loyal to the original objectives of Lu-67 – a smaller, compact fighter designed to “rely on pure stealth and maneuverability to allow for it to sneak up on enemy formations and deliver difficult-to-evade close range ordinance.” The unparalleled flight performance of the Lu-67 is a direct result of this design philosophy.

The differences in aerodynamic layout between both fighters are subtle, but contribute to a marked superiority of the former aircraft as regards aircraft agility. Like most modern fighter aircraft, the Lu-67 is designed with negative static stability to promote pilot responsiveness. The main lifting surfaces – the wings – are of the same diamond wing configuration as the Lu-65, which imparts excellent structural characteristics. This shape concentrates the load force onto the strongest point of the airframe, where fuselage meets wing. The wing design also exhibits very little drag at transonic and supersonic speeds as it adheres to the Whitcomb area rule closely, with the widest point of the fighter aligned directly with the midsection. A supercritical airfoil is mated to this wing which provides significantly improved transonic performance, higher lift, and superior overall aerodynamic characteristics. The diamond wing exhibits a very high degree of blending with the fuselage, which allows for increased usable lift and an extended range as the larger wing volume may accommodate more fuel for the aircraft’s powerplant. This extra wing area also contributes to the aircraft’s agility by reducing wing-loading, although pilots of experimental versions frequently complained of poor low-altitude performance due to airflow buffeting. The problem was largely solved with the introduction of Direct Force Control capability in the fighter’s control systems. DFC allows for the digital electronic control system to adjust the motion of the fighter without having to change the attitude of its fuselage, greatly enhancing performance in air combat maneuvering. The primary enabler of DFC in the Advanced Tactical Fighter is a forward vertical canard, mounted beneath the fuselage. This surface extends during low-speed flight, and affords the ACI-74 pilot superior agility in the horizontal attitude to virtually every other fighter available on the export market. The canard plane acts somewhat similar to a rudder as it slews left and right for sideslip control though the effect is magnified due to its position. As an example of this functionality, a pilot may keep his nose perfectly on target when following a bogey through high-G manuevers at all times. This canard retracts to lie flat against the Lu-67's airframe at high speeds to reduce drag. Two other conventional canard foreplanes are located near the nose of the fighter to reduce the impact of stall and spin by stabilizing airflow over the main wings and delaying airflow separation. These canards have a 15 degree anhedral to reduce aerodynamic stability.

Traditionally, fighter aircraft have been limited to maneuver at angles of attack below 25 degrees due to the danger of airflow separation from the wing. In the design of the Advanced Tactical Fighter, however, these limitations have been completely overcome with the implementation of mission-adaptive control surfaces combined with orthodox techniques such as vortex generation and vectored thrust. The adaptive wings of the Lu-67 Advanced Tactical Fighter have no conventional ailerons, flaps, slats, or spoilers but rather utilize aeroelastic leading and trailing edges able to bend into a required position without leaving gaps. These are able to move from four degrees up to twenty five degrees down as enabled by its variable wing camber mechanism. Because the airfoil is able to adjust to a shifting flow, the Lu-67 is the world's first production fighter capable of exploiting the phenomenon of "dynamic lift overshoot" at all airspeeds. The airfoil oscillates as the fighter's angle of attack increases which forces the airflow to stick to the wing and enables maneuvers previously unheard of. The wingtips are also aeroelastic to enhance roll rate, albeit this comes at the expense of optional wingtip hardpoints. Other physical features of the fighter supplement the adaptive airfoil in reducing wing stall. The fuselage chine and canards generate air vortices much like leading edge extensions on the F/A-18. At high angles of attack, the boundary layer flow becomes sluggish, which creates the danger of envelope departure and hence loss of control - the vortices serve to re-energize the flow and keep it moving over the wing surfaces, improving directional stability and lift. The sum of these varied efforts culminates in the Lu-67 Advanced Tactical Fighter's remarkable "supermaneuverability", officially defined as the capability of full sideslip control at angles of attack exceeding maximum lift. Post-stall maneuvers have been tested and executed in production models at up to 70 degree angles of attack without stall. A pilot may snap his fighter 60 degrees off boresight in a split-second by manipulating the revolutionary control systems introduced. In sum, the pilot of the Lu-67 Advanced Tactical Fighter will have a decisive advantage in the modern close-range dogfight because of the extreme performance gap between his aircraft and those of his potential enemies.

The aerodynamic stresses of the Lu-67s flight envelope demands an airframe able to sustain such challenges. However, TPMI/EC learned firsthand the penalties of seeking pure performance from the TF-70 project, which led to the development of a different set of priorities for the airframe. The morale and logistical problems created by an extremely maintenance-intensive aircraft like the TF-70 soon became a massive headache for the TFAS's service personnel (cults dedicated to the worship of ancient and malevolent deities from beyond the cosmos have found great popularity among disillusioned mechanical crews, who have lost faith in a benevolent god). Like its predecessor design, the Lu-67 is a fully-modern, monocoque fighter aircraft. The frames and longerons of the fuselage are manufactured from high-strength 7475 zinc-aluminum alloy in order to reduce costs and weight as compared to titanium alloys. These components are superplastic-forming, which promotes fracture toughness and thermal creep resistance, and electron-beam welded to improve structural stability. The extensive use of electron-beam welding in the airframe also reduces airframe weight as this allows for the use of heavy fasteners to be kept at a minimum. Bulkheads and the superstructure as a whole feature resin transfer molded composites (primarily graphite-epoxy with polybenzothiazole in areas of higher thermal stress) of a high-strength/weight ratio, greatly easing fabrication processes. The wing structure, however, makes fewer compromises - the load-bearing spars are formed from Ti-1100, a very strong near-alpha titanium-aluminum alloy. The longerons are, however, 7475 zinc-aluminum as additional structural strength is unnecessary for these components. The fittings of the wings are hot isostatic pressing cast Ti-1100. The load-bearing skin of the aircraft is comprised of composites and titanium alloys near the front of the aircraft, with aluminum-lithium towards the empennage, and electron-beam welded to the longerons. Skin surface panels are formed from titanium on the leading edges of the aircraft and carbon-fiber reinforced para-polybenzothiazole resin. Use of these composites in place of a standard metal skin reduces machining costs and weight. The canards and ruddervators are the most expensive component of the airframe, as they are manufactured from Ti-1100 metal matrix composite, reinforced by monofilament silicon carbide. The aft fuselage features a very high amount of titanium due to the high thermal stress from the ACI-74's powerplant, although this is reduced somewhat by the use of carbon-carbon foam in a cavity surrounding the nacelles.

[Avionics]

The considerations of the electronics development were borne from hard lessons learned from previous TPMI/EC development programs, and the intended mission goals of the aircraft. Budgetary analysis by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency indicated that in order to replace the older Chimera's on a 1:1 basis, the fly-off price could not exceed one hundred and twenty million dollars per unit. As avionics and associated flight systems constitute a majority of modern aircraft costs, TPMI/EC economized wherever possible without sacrificing the key capabilities necessary to combat operations. The wide variety of roles that the Lu-67 will be called to fill, from ground-attack to maritime strike to fighter sweep, requires an electronics package just as versatile as the basic airframe. Lu-67 is the first German aircraft to features extensive use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf components, as previous experiences with all in-house design led to extremely maintenance intensive systems with little if any practical value. All individual electronic elements are unified under the Mark 3b Integrated Modular Architecture centralized processing network, to maximize pilot SA (situational awareness) and improve mission readiness rates of the fighter. A derivative of the more advanced Mark 3 IMA implemented in the Lu-65, the Mark 3b coordinates and controls mission-sensitive information on a tightly integrated software and hardware platform. Mark 3b relies on common processing modules and protocols between systems to reduce avionics costs and weight. Communications between individual elements are conducted over a rugged 2GB/s fiber optic backbone, which provides sufficient bandwidth while maximizing reliability. In addition, the use of this non-proprietary point-to-point bus allows for integration of foreign avionics into the Mark 3b to be simplified. The heart of the Mark 3b is the Central Integrated Processor [CIP], a computer hosting every individual element of the mission systems software. Two CIPs are found in avionics racks located to the front of the aircraft, with one operating as a backup. The CIP consolidates functions previously managed by separate mission and weapons computers, and dedicated signal processors to achieve maximum electronics integration. Twenty two processing modules handling general purpose, signals processing, image processing, switching, and power management operations are installed in the baseline. The CIP was designed with "pluggable growth" in mind, and eight additional slots for processing modules hosted on a card interface are available for expansion. This will enable the Lu-67 to remain operationally effective even as newer aircraft types are introduced by foreign competitors, reducing long-term costs by a considerable margin.

As a whole, the Mark 3b Integrated Modular Avionics package is comprised of three main subsystems dedicated to mission management, sensor management, and vehicle management. All elements of the Mark 3b are modularly installed. Cooling for the entire suite is provided via a PAO (polyalphaolefin) liquid solution. The Mark 3b also includes fully functional diagnostic software which enables support personnel to quickly identify and solve problems with the ACI-74's electronics systems.

The Mission Management Suite subsystem of the Mark 3b is composed of the terrain/navigation suite, fire-control, munitions management and Electronic Warfare equipment. CIP resources are allocated to each function as necessary.

Navigation is provided by the CDI-1 system. Where previous avionics systems treated the myriad location-determining sensors of an aircraft as a discrete source of information, CDI-1 manages the data gathered by each individual system and presents it to the pilot in a coherent way. CDI-1 includes two primary sources of navigational information – an Inertial Reference System and a Terrain Reference System calibrated against each other to provide for unmatched accuracy in location.The Terrain Reference System relies on careful measurement of the terrain profile passing beneath the aircraft with a RADAR altimeter and comparison with digitally-stored geographic data. The primary advantage to using a TR system is that a standard TF (terrain-following) navigation scheme will alert enemy Electronic Surveillance Measures far sooner, due to the RADAR beam's direction. On the other hand, a TRN altimeter has an extremely narrow beam width whose energy is directed downwards, rendering virtually all ESM measures impotent. The Inertial Reference System component is comprised of two ring laser gyroscopes and an accelerometer located in the forward fuselage, coupled with GPS uplinks compatible with most standard satellite interfaces. Only one of the gyroscopes is necessary for normal operation; data from the second is fed to the Lu-65's fire control systems to automatically adjust gun position for drift.

Fire control is governed by the Stores Management System, which monitors all phases of weapons release. Data from the Sensor Management Suite is linked to this component, which constantly updates the pilot’s interface on target disposition and type. It draws on CIP resources to rapidly calculate suitable firing solutions. The Stores Management System also functions to inform the pilot of the condition of payload, control weapons launch sequences, as well as door controls and emergency weapons jettison.

The Lu-67 features an all-new Integrated Electronic Warfare System, comprised of various subsystems installed in modular apertures around the aircraft. In practical terms, the system determines the location and nature of all potential threats, thereby warning aircrew when they are being tracked, targeted, or engaged. A superheterodyne RADAR Warning Receiver provides all-aspect radar warning capability, supporting analysis, identification, tracking, mode determination and angle of arrival (AOA) of mainbeam emissions, plus automatic direction finding for correlation with other sensors, threat avoidance and targeting information. The radar warning system is active all of the time, providing both air and surface coverage. It also provides defensive threat awareness and offensive targeting support–acquisition and tracking of main beam and side lobe emissions, beyond-visual-range emitter location and ranging, emitter ID and signal parameter measurement. Packaged in two electronics racks, it includes cards for radar warning, direction finding and ESM. The antennas for the RADAR Warning Receivers are embedded in the external skin. Laser Warning Receivers are also present, which detects laser radiation and determines its bearing. In order to quickly track missile launches the Integrated Electronic Warfare System incorporates a set of Missile Warning Receivers, with their antennas built into the ruddervators. To increase the effectiveness of the system the MAW is also directly linked to the countermeasures systems allowing an instantaneous response to a local launch. The MAWs include a set of Rayleigh scattering processing modules, which serves to greatly improve resolution and accuracy regarding threat disposition.

Active countermeasures equipment is also installed in the Advanced Tactical Fighter, and their effectiveness is supported by highly sensitive passive receivers. The Imperial Aerospace Corporation-made Electronic Defense Automatic Response System (EDARS) provides a full spectrum of automated countermeasures to defeat tracking systems in contemporary use. The key component of EDARS is the D/EJS-3A Electronic Countermeasures Suite. This system is an active RADAR jammer, designed to be used in circumstances when stealth is not nessessary (i.e., when a missile already has a lock). TPMI/EC software upgrades have enabled the D/EJS-3A to engage in DRFM (digital radio frequency memory) jamming including standard barrage or noise modes. In the DRFM mode, the ACI-74 manipulates received radar energy and retransmits it to change the return the hostile RADAR sees. This technique serves to provide conflicting and confusing information for enemy interpretation. For example, the jammer may change the range the transmitter detects through alterations in the delay in pulse transmission or the velocity the radar detects by changing the Doppler shift of the transmitted signal. An XC-100 countermeasures dispenser is internally mounted, which is programmed to deploy multi-spectral chaff and flares only in the direction of a threat as determined by the passive sensors. The flares are treated with chemical additives that spoof the IR sensors of most IR guided missiles. Additionally, data from the radar warning equipment is linked to the chaff cutting mechanism – the XC-100 is sophisticated enough to interpret the RWR’s information and cut the aluminum strips to increase reflectivity to the RF band being deceived.

The Sensor Management Suite subsystem of the Mark 3 package combines the Lu-65's RADAR, IRST, integrated signal processing, encrypted data, communications, and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System interface, allocating CIP processor power to the sensor subsystems as required by the mission. With the advanced, centralized architecture employed by the Mark 3b IMA, the SMS implements sensor fusion for the pilot to enhance situational awareness and reduce pilot workload. By automating the task of interpreting sensor data, the Lu-67 removes the possibility of conflicting data gathered by the various sensors and eliminates the need for manual cross-referencing.

The primary detection tool of the pilot is a DPARS-92 Active Electronically Scanned Array RADAR, housed in the nose of the fighter. Designed to reduce weight, cost, and reliability issues as compared to the older AN/PSI-7 system, the DPARS-92 is installed as a planar tile-array in nose-mounted radome. The DPARS-92's transmitter and receiver functions are composed of 4,000 individual transmit/receive (T/R) modules that each scan a small fixed area, negating the need for a moving antenna, which further decreases ESM detection probabilities as well as aircraft volume issues. DPARS-92 relies on "quad-pack" transmit-receive modules, developed originally by Livermore Electric (a subcontractor of GEM Aerospace, which TPMI/EC contacted as a partner in the fighter program). These dies consolidate four arrays (each consisting of four MMIC chips - a drive amplifier, digital phase shifter, and low-noise amplifier, and a RF power amplifier) onto one chip, which greatly reduces weight, volume, and materials costs. The chips are manufactured on gallium-arsenide wafers due to the higher electron mobility and reduced noise GaAs affords than conventional silicon. To protect the antenna from detection by hostile ESM systems, it is mounted in a bandpass radome, transparent only to the band of frequencies utilized by the radar. When it is not in use, suitable electrical impulses turn the bandpass characteristic off, making it totally opaque. The RADAR's elimination of hydraulics for antenna movements and distribution of transmission functions into the T/R modules alleviates logistical concerns. The DPARS-92 is a Low Probability of Interception [LPI] system, meaning that the waveforms of the RADAR have a much longer pulse and lower amplitude, as well as a narrower beam and virtually no sidelobe radiation. The result of this waveform modification is that the transmitted signals are virtually undetectable by enemy ESM receivers, as the RF energy emitted is spread over a wide range of frequencies, hiding among the noise of benign signals that clutter the microwave region. A tertiary data channel screens hostile ECM measures. In air-to-surface operations the radar will support functions such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ground mapping.

An AN/RSI-1 Inverse Synthetic Aperture RADAR processes the Doppler shift resulting from target motion as a means of improving RADAR resolution. Thanks to shared components with the AN/PSI-7, the AN/RSI-1 is highly compact, and adds less than 30 lbs to the aircraft's weight. By measuring the much larger Doppler shifts created by the Lu-67's own motion and the target's changes in attitudes, the AN/RSI-1 is able to extract the Doppler effects due to pitch, yaw, and roll of the different parts of the target aircraft, processing these to obtain a clear physical profile. This information is cross-referenced against a database of known aircraft types and presented to the pilot.

Passive detection equipment will see frequent use during Lu-67 operations (as these betray no warning of the fighter's approach). The aircraft includes an Integrated Electro-optical Sensor System, providing high-resolution imagery, automatic tracking, infrared-search-and-track capability, and laser designation and rangefinding. The IESS utilizes a fixed imaging infrared-array to reduce maintenance costs, and is mounted internally behind a bandpass window to reduce drag and aircraft RCS. The assembly is also shared by an optical laser system, and is housed in the forward fuselage with a 140 degree field of view. The DIRST-6G infrared search and tracking system from the Lu-67 provides additional detection options . This system is comprised of several infrared scanners which passively scan the surrounding air for heat signatures, picking out differing infrared levels and mapping them out for the central processor, which in turn interpretes the data, picking out aircraft and displaying them for the pilot via the Mission Management Suite. Each individual sensor scans across red-scale wavelengths from 2.4-13 microns to enable all-aspect detection capabilities. The sensor is cryogenically cooled via Freon gas, which allows for the system to interpret finer temperature gradients across longer distances. Estimated range for each sensor is quoted at approximately 100km under optimal conditions. All data gathered by the system is post-processed by the Sensor Management Suite to enhance resolution.

The Mark 3b includes a comprehensive Integrated Communication Navigation Identification Avionics suite, which combines the functions of current communications equipment, such as HF SSB (High Frequency-Single Side Band), VHF/UHF, SINCGARS, Have Quick, EJS, JTIDS, various navigational aids and transponder/interrogator facilities compatible with NATO-standard IFF systems. Based on common digital and RF processing modules , the system allows for all these functions to be seamlessly built into just one package. It also takes up half the volume and weight of the aforementioned equipment. The ICNIA provides functions such as beyond-visual-range identification friend-or-foe; secure, multichannel, multiband voice communications; and intraflight data link exchanges, synchronizing the displays of multiple aircraft. The Central Integrated Processors filter much of the information being passed to the pilot, presenting him with only data necessary for the phase for the mission currently being flown, to prevent information overload.

The Vehicle Management Suite is responsible for $@pit controls and displays, flight and maneuver control, and engine/power control. It is independent of the CIP, with separate processing provided by three Vehicle Management Computers. Each computer contains a processor card, I/O card and power supply card. All three VMCs process data simultaneously, calibrating results across each other to assure data integrity. In the case of divergent data, two processors can discard the output of the other processor. Interfacing to the VMCs are remote I/O computers installed across the aircraft, which receive flight control and other inputs from hundreds of digital, analog and discrete sensors. These provide data to the VMCs via the fiber optic network control. The VMCs also govern a Utilities Control System, which manages and automates the various mechanical utilities found aboard the fighter. Examples of these include primary and backup electrical systems, hydraulics (for aircraft control actuators, brakes, nose wheel steering, intakes, et al.), fuel stores and climate controls in the $@pit.

The Lu-67 is controlled by a centralized fly by light fiber optic system that takes both control input from the pilot and feedback from the various sensors and control surfaces around the airplane. Due to the critical role aircraft response times play in tactical aviation, a FBL control scheme was chosen for the ACI-74 Aquila-II. More importantly however, fly-by-light offers an attractive alternative to interference prone fly-by-wire systems. The popularity of EMI-based air defense weapons was not lost on TPMI/EC designers; thus, the control system is nearly immune to such errorneous behavior caused by outside sources. Additionally, the flight envelope characteristics of the aircraft are programmed into the system, which prevents the pilot from engaging in maneuvers which would induce a total loss of control. A manual override is available, in case of deep stall (which remains a theoretical possibility although no instances have yet occurred). Should the aircraft depart its flight envelope for any reason, however, a failsafe switch in the $@pit may be engaged that will cause the Vehicle Management Suite to automatically return the aircraft to level flight. Finally, the system is adaptable to irregularities in instructions due to malfunction by reconfiguring itself and biasing the pilot’s controls to compensate. All motors utilized in the transmission are brushless, which improves efficiency, reliability, and reduces generated EMI levels.

Computerized Associate:

The Lu-65 includes a "computerized associate", essentially a primitive artificial intelligence that serves as a combination of copilot and backseater. Allegedly designated the Advanced Mission-supporting Intelligent Assistant or AMIA, the AI is believed to improve the situational awareness and survivability of the fighter through a number of autonomous functions. The pilot is, according to accounts from defectors, hooked up to health sensors which monitor blood pressure, pulse rate, breathing patterns, and electrical activity in the brain. Should the system determine that the pilot is incapacitated, due to red/blackout or other reasons, AMIA will automatically seize control and attempt to fly a safe, evasive route back to its pre-programmed base location. AMIA is also able to execute simple oral commands given by the pilot, such as display switching, stores management, or changing radio frequencies. Most interesting of all is AMIA's electronic warfare and countermeasures support functions, however. It is capable of intelligently analyzing strength, frequency, and location of hostile sensor sites through a data highway connection with the Sensor Management Suite. AMIA will render a display of these locations, estimate range of detection relative to the fighter's location, and advise navigational course for the pilot so as to evade detection. Also, AMIA is capable of limited assistance during offensive or defensive manuevering. For example, if the Missile Alert Warner systems detect a launch, AMIA will automatically cycle the NRV-27 RF jammer to the frequency band tracking the fighter and advise the pilot to activate said equipment. The flight envelope characteristics of the TF-70A+ are also programmed into AMIA's database allowing the AI to advise specific manuevers in response to a given situation.

[stealth]

The tradition of the Lu-65's stealth attributes have been preserved and even enhanced in the design of its successor aircraft. In keeping with the objective of "first shot, first kill", the Lu-67 is engineered to be even more difficult to detect than the already elusive Lu-65. The airframe layout was designed with computational RCS modeling techniques, to achieve "spike alignment" of reflected RF waves. The angles incorporated on all horizontal leading and trailing edges are kept as different as possible, thereby dumping the reflected RF energy to the fighter’s port and starboard sectors. This results in large, but narrow RADAR signature spikes that are extremely difficult to track effectively. The fighter exhibits a high degree of wing/body blending, which provides desirable aerodynamic characteristics such as improved lift, while also reducing RCS by allowing electrical surface currents to flow over the surfaces without interruption. The lack of discontinuities in the mission-adaptive wings prevents traveling waves from re-radiating too strongly (as they must pass along the surface with embedded RAM elements). Some composite panels in the aircraft's construction are RADAR Absorbent Structures (honeycombed Kevlar sections bonded to carbon-fiber skins), which are intended to absorb microwaves in higher-frequency regions. The primary RADAR Absorbent Material utilized in the Lu-67 are Schiff base salts. Derived from research by Carnegie-Mellon University, the material, which is a fine black powder physically resembling graphite, consists of a long chain of carbon atoms with alternating double and single bonds and a nitrogen atom interrupting the string near one end. The chain carries a positive charge, associated largely with the nitrogen atom. A negatively charged 'counterion,' made up of varying composition depending on the specific salt, sits nearby, weakly connected to the chain. The counterion prefers to sit in one of two locations near the chain. A single photon easily dislodges the counterion from one location and forces it into the other. A short time later, the molecule relaxes, and the counterion returns to its original position. Notably, certain salts required a very small amount of energy to shift the counterion - they could be triggered by RADAR energy of certain frequencies. As a result, the Schiff base salts are able to absorb radio waves, and dissipate the energy as heat. This unique property is fully exploited in the fighter’s construction - a mixture of salts tuned to surveillance frequency bands most often employed by air to air RADAR systems (X, L, etc.) are dissolved in a binder chemical and used to treat the external resin panels. The SBS class of materials is additionally 90% lighter than previous-generation ferromagnetic absorbers, and extremely inexpensive to fabricate. Most importantly, Schiff base salts are durable enough to withstand maritime conditions without degrading RF absorptive qualities. Areas of higher reflectivity on the basic airframe have circuit analogue RAM applied. These are thin sheets of copper wire, arranged in complex geometries to scatter and diffuse RADAR signals. The leading edges of the ruddervators have embedded arrays of titanium-aluminum triangles that perform the same function, trapping RF energy inside like an echo chamber.

Exact RCS of the Lu-67 Advanced Tactical Fighter is comparable to the larger Lu-65, although this varies somewhat based on aspect of view.

In order to reduce electro-magnetic signature, the avionics bays built into the Lu-67 are treated with Electric Wave Absorbing Material, developed by TPMI/EC. EWAM is a six-layer, non-woven cloth comprised of stainless steel and polyethyl fibers. The material is applied to the inner walls of the electronics housing in the fighter, and serves to eliminate electro-magnetic leakage from the on-board equipment. Under laboratory conditions, EWAM absorbs 99% of all emitted EM radiation, and reduces passive electromagnetic sensor detection vulnerability.

Infrared signature was addressed in a number of ways by TPMI/EC. The most prominent are the scalloped, flat nozzles located aft of the fighter. Although some horizontal attitude control is sacrificed, the use of these nozzles in place of the circular 3D nozzles found in Lu-67 is alleged to decrease infrared signature by an enormous factor as the exhaust plume forms a flat "beavertail" of wide lateral area that cools much faster than the high-intensity stream formed by round nozzles. These also contribute to aircraft agility by providing vectored thrust in the pitch axis over a range of 25 degrees up and down. Infrared signature is further suppressed with the use of extremely expensive carbon-carbon foam injected into cavities surrounding the engine nacelles. This material is exhibits superb thermal absorption qualities, and also contributes to RCS reduction by weakening RF return. Inorganic microparticles with absorptive qualities in the IR spectrum are also used on the empennage surface panels.

[Armament]

The main weapons loadout for the Lu-76 is carried internally in order to reduce RCS and improve aerodynamic performance. Four optional underwing hardpoints are available on the Lu-67 for additional ordinance, if so desired. Use of these is generally not recommended due to mechanical stress on the delicate wing-warping mechanisms - each hardpoint is rated to carry only up to 115kg. Overloading the wings will cause the airfoil controls to fail, and may potentially tear the lifting surfaces off completely. The fighter utilizes Imperial Aerospace's ARSADS-M weapon system in order to allow for the aircraft to fire its payload stealthily. Drawing on experience from the Advanced Reduced Signature Aircraft Ordinance Delivery System that was fielded on the Lu-65, ARSADS-M is a modular system based on the highly successful design. Like ARSADS, it launches its ordinance rather unconventionally: the weapon system utilizes an semi-maneuverable undercarriage that is lowered out from beneath the aircraft while firing. The system is designed to allow for the aircraft to maintain a high degree of stealth while launching ordinance. Rather than using a conventional bay that, when open, presents enemy RADAR operators with a signature, the undercarriage system lowers slightly from within its own bay (just small enough to accommodate the undercarriage), and can launch up to five medium range air-to-air missiles from five separate launch tubes.

Missile launches are aided via electro-magnetic coils and a high powered jet of compressed air, propelling the missiles out of the tubes, allowing for their engines to start a good distance from the aircraft. This means that the aircraft can remain better hidden, even when launching missiles. This also allows for ordinance to be launched during supersonic flight. The primary difference between ARSADS and ARSADS-M comes in the principle of modularity. Unlike ARSADS, the undercarriage system of ARSADS-M is designed to be quickly and easily removed by ground crews, allowing for each undercarriage to be easily swapped out. This adds a great amount of flexibility to the fighter, allowing for undercarriage systems designed to accommodate different types of air-to-air and air-to-ground munitions (for example, an ARSADS-M undercarriage may be equipped to fire sixteen short range air-to-air missiles, or one equipped to launch a pair of 2000lb laser guided bombs; the possibilities are endless) to be utilized by the aircraft. Generally, the operation of ARSADS-M is as follows: upon returning from a sortie, the undercarriage of the fighterwould be removed by the ground crew and replaced with a freshly loaded undercarriage configured to carry whichever type of ordnance is required for the mission. The spent undercarriage would then be reloaded with whichever type of missile it is designed to accommodate and reused, replacing an empty undercarriage on returning fighters.

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Name: GLI-133 Ank'ríat

Type: Super Heavy Bomber

Length: 101m

Wingspan: 117.16m

Height: 25.3m

Empty Weight: 230,000 kilograms

Loaded Weight: 449,310 kilograms

Maximum Take-Off Weight: 572,330 kilograms

Power Plant: Six F101-GE-102 augmented turbofans

Maximum Velocity: 1,050 kph

Cruise Velocity: 870 kph

Range: Unlimited

Service Ceiling: 16,000 meters

Armament: six external hardpoints for 59,000 lb (27,000 kg) of ordnance and 5 internal bomb bays for 75,000 lb (34,000 kg) of ordnance.

Defenses:

Two internal 'Artus' cylindrical mini-missile close-in weapon system

Crew: 5

Procurement Cost: 1.7 billion

Planned Production: 10

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Name: Arado Ar 234, Blitz

Produced: 20 Squadrons

Type: Advanced Heavy Long Range Supersonic Multi-Role Bomber

Crew: 4 (aircraft commander, pilot, offensive systems officer and defensive systems officer)

Length: 92.75m

Wingspan: 89.25m extended forward[20 degrees]; 66.25m swept aft [60 degrees]

Height: 22m

Propulsion: 6x Aerone Model 555 VBPC Afterburning Turbofans

Engine Rating (Dry): 226kN (23,000 kgf)

Engine Rating (Afterburner): 245kN (25,000 kgf)

Empty Weight: 170,000kg

Maximum Take-Off Weight: 425,000kg

Minimum Fuel Weight: 160,000kg

Maximum Fuel Weight: 230,000kg

Six External Pylons: 5000kg Each; Wet

Three Internal Weapon Bays:

Length: 7.5m

Width: 4m

Height: 1.2m

Payload: 20,000kg Each

Re/Movable Bulkheads?: Yes

Wet?: Yes, 18,500kg Tanks [in place of weapons]

Normal Payload: 60,000kg

Maximum Payload: 90,000kg

Normal Combat Weight: 400,000kg

Maximum Combat Weight: 420,000kg

Thrust-to-Weight Ratio[Combat Weight, Dry]: .345:1

Min Combat Range [max payload]: 3,000km

Median Combat Range [60 tonne payload] 7,250km

Maximum Combat Range [20 tonne payload, max fuel]: 12,000km

Ferry Range: 21,000km

Service Ceiling: 18,000m

Initial Rate of Climb: 60m/s

Airstrip take-off run: 2200m

Airstrip landing: 1900m

Cruise Speed: Mach .85 [1,010km/h]

Maximum Speed: Mach .9 [1,070km/h @ Sea Level], Mach 1.5 [1591km/h @ altitude]

Stall Speed: ?

In-flight Refueling?: Yes

Oxygen Generation?: Yes

Avionics:

AN/APG-525 LPI Phased Array Multi-Function Radar ( Maximum search range of fighter-sized targets is estimated at 270 kilometers – however, the AN/PSI-7 may increase this range to 450 kilometers)

Focke - Xenian Airborne Warning and Control Vehicle

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Vehicle Type: Xenian

Class: Airborne Warning and Control Vehicle

Manufacturer: Focke Aerospace

Crew: Typically 17 (four flight crew and 13 mission crew) however additional crew may be added as necessary. Breakdown is as follows:

Two pilots

1 navigator

1 flight engineer

1 tactical director

3 fighter directors

5 surveillance operators

2 communication operators

1 radar technician

1 computer display technician

Statistical Data

LENGTH: 48.5 m

WINGSPAN: 35.00 m

HEIGHT: 9.4 m at tail

WEIGHT: 55,000 kg empty.

CARGO: In addition to the sensor equipment, the EC-33 can hold up to 500 cu ft and 20,000 kg.

POWER PLANT: 4 x Santhe L-1 400 kW generators

ENGINE THRUST 4 x Santhe BR715-C1-50 turbofan engines mounted in pairs on either side of the tail. Each engine provides 28,000-lbf (124.5 kN) of thrust.

FUEL CAPACITY: 24,350 US gal (92,175 liters)

MAXIMUM SPEED: 913 kph (567 mph)

ON-STATION SPEED: 606 kph (377 mph)

STALL SPEED: 215 kph (134 mph)

CLIMB RATE: 1025 m/min (33363 ft/min)

CEILING: 15,241 m (50000 ft)

ON-STATION ALTITUDE: 10,668 m (35000 ft)

DESIGNED G LIMITS: +4.0/-2.5 (Computer overrides at 2.5g)

RANGE (on station at a radius of 1,852 nm): 12 hours -- 22 hours with air refueling

STANDARD EQUIPMENT FOR THE Xenian:

ACTIVE SENSOR JAMMER WESTINGHOUSE ALQ-250(V): internal ECM providing broadband protection. Estimated system effective radiative power 60 dBW.

AUTO-PILOT: The Xenian is equipped with a computerized auto-pilot, allowing the pilot to relax or even sleep during long voyages. The auto- pilot can be programmed with a single destination or a complex flight plan involving multiple speeds, directions, and destinations.

CHAFF AND FLARE DISPENSERS AN/ALE-55: 120 chaff and 120 flares are stored in rear of the Xenian

COMBAT COMPUTER IBM-210: The combat computer tracks and identifies specific enemy targets, and has a database of over 10,000 images stored in memory. The computer can identify and track up to 250 targets simultaneously

COMMUNICATION JAMMER: Designed to detect, analyze, monitor, and/or jam voice and data link signals

INFRA-RED WARNING RECEIVER OLDELFT (IRWR): Providing rear aspect protection from IR guided missiles

HOMING SIGNAL: In case of a crash of the vehicle, the Xenian is equipped with a homing device that enables rescue teams to locate a disabled craft or ejected life pod.

LASER TARGETING SYSTEM: Range: 100 miles (160 km). Used for increased accuracy in the striking of enemy targets which is then passed to friendly units.

objects by their IR reflectiveness. The beam will be visible to anyone with IR sensitive optics, however.

OPTICS (NIGHTVISION): 50 km range. A passive light image intensifier that emits no light of its own, but relies on ambient light which is electronically amplified to produce a visible picture.

OPTICS (THERMAL IMAGER): 50 km range. A passive optical heat sensor that detects infrared radiation projected by warm objects and converts

that data into a false-color visible image. The system enables the pilot to see in the dark, in shadows, and through smoke.

RADAR-SURVEILLANCE WESTINGHOUSE AN/APY-4 (Block-20): Multi-mode S-band pulse Doppler radar. The radar can operate in both low-PRF pulsed modes to detect long-range targets beyond the horizon or high-PRF modes to detect all-altitude targets out to the radar line of sight. Mounted on top of the aircraft which rotates at 6 rpm when in use, the AN/APY-4 is a liquid-cooled phased array radar with an estimated effective radiative power 115 dBW. Nominal detection of 0 dBsm targets out to 600 km. The system has the capability to operate as a radar jammer providing broadband protection using the full radiative power of the system.

RADAR-SYNTHETIC APERTURE AM/AP-110 RADAR: Detection range against 0 dBsm (small vehicle) out to 220 km. System consists of two electronically-scanned conformal antenna on the top of the main body in front of the AN/APY-3/4 AP-110 has 30 separate modes including the capability of operating as a moving target indicator (MTI) or as a synthetic aperture radar which allows the system to paint a picture of ground based targets to aid in targeting and thus enhancing weapon accuracy.

RADAR-TARGET WESTINGHOUSE AN/APG-95: X-band pulse Doppler radar used for target ID and target quality tracks which could be passed to friendly units. Detection range against 0 dBsm target 200 km. System consists of a single electronically-scanned antenna mounted in the nose.

RADAR WARNING RECEIVER AN/ALR-80 (RWR): Providing all aspect broadband protection from RF guided missiles.

RADIO/VIDEO COMMUNICATION: Long range, directional communications system with satellite relay capabilities. Range: 600 miles (960 km) or can be boosted indefinitely via satellite relay.

TACTICAL LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM: The fuselage is pressurized and provides full nuclear and chemical protection.

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The Kreigsmarine

The German Navy is part of the Reich Armed Forces. Its mission includes the participation in peace-keeping and peace enforcement operations as well as the protection of German territories. The Navy has significant blue water capabilities but is mostly devoted to coastal defense.

Naval Command:

The First Naval Lord and Chief of Naval Operations (1SL/CNO) — who enjoys the unique rank of Grand Admiral of the Navy — effectively reigned from the palatial majesty of Unity Gardens, the Navy's headquarters complex built by Gehirn and Seele.

The Ministry of the Navy manages such administrative tasks as funding, upkeep of "installations and environments," and management of civilian personnel (detailed from the SSI). The rest belonged to Naval Command, and the 1SL/CNO fiercely guarded his prerogatives — and in any case, thanks to the common practice of 'jelligatoring' (i.e., the practice of 'laundering' one's clientele so as to keep ties of patronage 'invisible'), more often than not the 1SL/CNO either 'owned' the Minister of the Navy, or else had enough clout that there was no question of his questioning his nominal subordinate's decisions.

There was no formal Navy general staff; instead, the Board of Admiralty administers the Navy in a somewhat more collegial fashion. The president of the board, 1NL/CNO, was joined by the Chief of Naval Personnel, the Chief of Naval Procurement, the Chief of Naval Supplies, Chief of Naval Aviation, the Surgeon General, and the Oceanographer. Beneath the Board of Admiralty the Navy was divided into subject-matter branches, the Line Branch, Flight Branch, Fleet Support Branch, and Support Service Branch, which were further subdivided into bureaux concerned with such matters as deck, logistics, administration, flight, engineering, technical services, ordnance, gunnery, communications, and biology. Together the Board of Admiralty and the four branches smoothly administered the Imperial Navy.

List of Ships:

Total Ships: 44

Fyre Islands Class Landing Ship [LSD]

Commissioned: 6

Builder: Kreigs Point Naval Systems

Overall Length: 214m

Length At Waterline: 200m

Beam: 32.5m

Draft: 6.25m

Displacement: 26,849 tons full load

cB: .655

Armament:

2x STATIC II

4x 21 cell JAWHOL Launcher

6x S30 13.3mm HMG

Complement:

Crew: 675

Troops: 350 men

Vehicles: 30 IFVs [10x3.75m] + 12 Combat Trucks [Humvee]

Landing Craft: 2x Eagle LCAC [30x30m well deck] and 4x RHIB above deck with cranes

Helicopter Landing Pad 60x32.5m w/refueling station

Propulsion:

Powerplant: 1x 60MW Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors powering 2 shafts.

Max Cruise: 25 knots [57,352 shp / 42,785 Kw]

Sensors:

AN/SPS-110 Air Search Radar

AN/SPS-160 Surface Search Radar

AN/SPS-95 SSR Navigational radar

AN/SSQ-100 'StrikeNet' Military Uplink Unit

Countermeasures:

AN/SLQ-49

AN/SLQ-25 Nixie

MK-53 Nulka DLS

Countermeasures:

Towed array sonar utilizing a hull transducer or a towed active transducer or both.

Cost: $1.35 Billion USD

'Bismarck'-Class Guided Missile Battleship [bBGN]

Commissioned: 5

Waterline Length: 366m

Overall Length: 371.64m

Beam: 45m

Draught: 20m

cB: .487

Displacement: 161,860 Tons Normal

Gun Armament:

2x 2 M10 Naval Rifles 212mm (8.35”) L60 ETC

4x 2 M11 Naval Rifles 130mm (5.1”) L75 ETC

Missile Armament:

8x 12 cell Mk170 Strategic VLS Fore [2.5x2.5x21m cell internal, 3.5x3.5x23m external]

8x 12 cell Mk170 Strategic VLS Aft [2.5x2.5x21m cell internal, 3.5x3.5x23m external]

Defensive Armament:

12x Mark 30 45mm Autocannon Gun/Missile System [2000 shells + 48 Missiles per system]

4x 2x4 tube 'Aegir' Mark V Anti-Torpedo System [254mm wire guided counter torpedoes, mounted on the bottom of the hull facing down]

Protection Types:

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type A (HNAC Type A):

50% Maraging Steel, 50% Eglin Steel

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type B (HNAC Type :

50% Maraging Steel, 45% Eglin Steel, 5% Austenitic Stainless Steel

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type C (HNAC Type C):

45% Maraging Steel, 55% Eglin Steel

Triple-bottomed reinforced HNAC Type B keel with void spaces over a HNAC Type C frame; Rubber installed in void spaces, HNAC Type C crossbeams installed across bulkheads to provide protection against kinetic attacks.

720mm @ Belt [Tapered 20 Degrees]

254mm @ Lower Belt [Tapered 20 Degrees]

520mm @ Upper Belt [Tapered 20 Degrees]

520mm @ Belt Ends [Tapered 20 Degrees]

30mm @ Top Deck

390mm @ Armored Deck

720mm @ Armored Superstructure [Conning tower]

175mm @bulkheads

Propulsion: 4x 140MW Pressurized Water Reactors powering 8 shafts and 4 internalised waterjets. Compulsators provide power from central power system to turrets.

Max Speed w/CONAS: 37.75 knots [644,381hp / 480,708 Kw]

Aircraft: 2 Medium ASW Helicopters [30mx40m Helo Pad, 30mx30m Hangar]

Complement: 3523, 20 Flight Crew

Sensors:

1x AN/SPY-5H1E Multi-function Radar [600km detection, 500km tracking]

1x AN-SPS-105E Long Range Search Radar [800km detection]

4x AN/SSS-205E Infrared Search and Tracking/Short Range Targeting Radar [25/30km tracking range]

1x AN/SPS-95 SSR Navigational radar

1x AN/SQS-56 Hull Mounted Sonar

1x AN/SQQ-89 ASW Combat System

Electronics Warfare Suite: AN/SLY-2 (V) Advanced Integrated Electronic Warfare System (AIEWS)

AN/SLQ-32(V)5 ESM

AN/SSQ-82(V)2 Multiple Unit for Transmission Elimination

AN/SRS-1A(V) Combat Direction Finding

Decoys: AN/SLQ-49

AN/SLQ-25 Nixie

MK-53 Nulka DLS

Fire Control:

1x AN/SPY-5H1E Main Fire Control System (Capable of detection 20,000 targets and tracking 2,000 targets, while simultaneously guiding 250+ missile or gun engagements)

Sub-Surface Fire Control:

1x Mk-79 Anti-Submarine Weapon Control System (ATS)

Countermeasures: Towed array sonar utilizing a hull transducer or a towed active transducer or both. It is an integrated ASW Mine Avoidance and Torpedo Defense underwater system

Next Generation Countermeasure (NGCM)

Missile Countermeasures:

2x Naval Theater Laser Defense System(NTLDS): Advanced Free-Electron Laser which target and destroys missiles and some shells, also proven to disable satellites in orbit. (7.5 MW Max Design Output)

Sale Cost: $19.5 Billion USD

'Schleswig-Hol'-Class Heavy Command Battleship [bBCN]

Commissioned: 1

Class Motto: Audaces fortuna iuvat - Fortune favors the bold

Length Overall: 486m

Waterline Length: 480m

Beam: 60m

Draught: 30m

cB: .572

Freeboard: Avg: 15.43m

Displacement: 496,651 Tons

Gun Armament:

2x 3 55cm (21.7”) L75 Naval Rifles in A and X positions [130 Shells per gun]

10x Dual M11 Mk.II Naval Rifles [5 Dual Turrets Each Side]

Missile Armament:

30x 12[3x4] cell Mark 170 Strategic VLS [2.5x2.5x21m behind main guns]

Defensive Armament

18x Mark 30 45mm Autocannon Gun/Missile System [4000 shells + 48 Missiles per system]

6x 2x4 'Aegir' Mark V ATS (Anti-Torpedo System)

Protection Types:

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type A (HNAC Type A):

50% Maraging Steel, 50% Eglin Steel

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type B (HNAC Type :

50% Maraging Steel, 45% Eglin Steel, 5% Austenitic Stainless Steel

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type C (HNAC Type C):

45% Maraging Steel, 40% Eglin Steel, 15% Tungsten Reinforcements

Triple-bottomed reinforced HNAC Type B keel with void spaces over a HNAC Type C frame; Rubber installed in void spaces, HNAC Type C crossbeams installed across bulkheads to provide protection against kinetic attacks.

925mm @ Main Belt

750mm @ Upper/End Belts

630mm @Lower Belt

925mm @55cm Turret Face

925mm @55cm Turret Sides/Rear/Top

925mm @55cm Turret Barbette

550mm @Deck

900mm @Superstructure/Bridge

900mm @Armored Magazines/Engine Room/Command Rooms

250mm @Bulkheads

Propulsion: 4x 140MW Pressurized Water Reactors powering 10 shafts and 4 internalized water jets. Compulsators provide power from central power system to turrets

Max Speed: 36 knots at [981,029 shp / 731,847 Kw]

Aircraft: 12 Medium Attack Helicopters/Transport/ASW and 4x Medium or 2x Large ASW/Transport Helicopters

Complement: 13,104

Sensors:

1x AN/SPY-5H2E Multi-function Radar [750km detection, 600km tracking]

1x AN-SPS-105H2E Long Range Search Radar [1000km detection]

4x AN/SSS-205E Infrared Search and Tracking/Short Range Targeting Radar [25/30km tracking range]

1x AN/SPS-95 SSR Navigational radar

1x AN/SQS-56 Hull Mounted Sonar

1x AN/SQQ-89 ASW Combat System

Electronics Warfare Suite: AN/SLY-2 (V) Advanced Integrated Electronic Warfare System (AIEWS)

AN/SLQ-32(V)5 ESM

AN/SSQ-82(V)2 Multiple Unit for Transmission Elimination

AN/SRS-1A(V) Combat Direction Finding

Decoys:

AN/SLQ-49

AN/SLQ-25 Nixie

MK-53 Nulka DLS

Fire Control:

1x AN/SPY-5H2E Main Fire Control System (Capable of detection 22,500 targets and tracking 2,250 targets, while simultaneously guiding 300+ missile or gun engagements)

Sub-Surface Fire Control:

1x Mk-79 Anti-Submarine Weapon Control System (ATS)

Countermeasures:

Towed array sonar utilizing a hull transducer or a towed active transducer or both. It is an integrated ASW, Mine Avoidance and Torpedo Defense underwater system

AN/SLQ-48 - Mine Neutralization Vehicle

AN/WLD-1 RMS Remote Minehunting System

Next Generation Countermeasure (NGCM)

Missile Countermeasures:

2x Naval Theater Laser Defense System(NLDS): Advanced Solid State Laser which targets and destroys missiles. (5 MW)

'North Point'-Class Guided Missile Cruiser[CGN]

Commissioned: 7

Waterline Length: 272m

Overall Length: 277m

Beam: 34m

Draught: 13m

Average Freeboard 10.51m [Flush Deck at 10m with freeboard of 13m at stem]

cB: .389

Displacement: 47,188 Tons Normal

Gun Armament:

2x 2 M10 Naval Rifles 212mm (8.35”) L60 ETC

4x 2 M11 Naval Rifles 130mm (5.1”) L75 ETC

Missile Armament:

4x 12[4x3] cell Mk170 Tactical VLS Fore [2x2x14.5m cell internal, 3x3x16m external]

4x 12[4x3] cell Mk170 Tactical VLS Aft [2x2x14.5m cell internal, 3x3x16m external]

Defensive Armament:

10x Mark 30 45mm Autocannon Gun/Missile System [4000 shells + 48 Missiles per system]

2x 2x4 tube 'Aegir' Mark V Anti-Torpedo System [254mm wire guided counter torpedoes, mounted on the bottom of the hull facing down]

Protection Types:

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type A (HNAC Type A):

50% Maraging Steel, 50% Eglin Steel

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type B (HNAC Type :

50% Maraging Steel, 45% Eglin Steel, 5% Austenitic Stainless Steel

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type C (HNAC Type C):

45% Maraging Steel, 55% Eglin Steel

Triple-bottomed reinforced HNAC Type B keel with void spaces over a HNAC Type C frame; Rubber installed in void spaces, HNAC Type C crossbeams installed across bulkheads to provide protection against kinetic attacks.

210mm @ Belt [Tapered 20 Degrees]

180mm @ Lower Belt [Tapered 20 Degrees]

180mm @ Upper Belt [Tapered 20 Degrees]

180mm @ Belt Ends [Tapered 20 Degrees]

175mm @ 5.52" Turret

127mm @3.54" Turret

30mm @ Top Deck

90mm @ Armored Deck

210mm @ Armored Superstructure [Conning tower]

127mm @bulkheads

Propulsion: 2x 150MW Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors powering 6 shafts. Compulsators provide power from central power system to turrets.

Max Speed: 38 knots [315,924 shp / 235,679 Kw]

Aircraft: 1 Medium ASW Helicopters [30mx25m Helo Pad, 30mx20m Hangar]

Complement: 1082, 10 Flight Crew

Sensors:

1x AN/SPY-6 Multi-function Radar [600km detection, 500km tracking]

1x AN-SPS-106 Long Range Search Radar [800km detection]

2x AN/SSS-205 Infrared Search and Tracking/Short Range Targeting Radar [25/30km tracking range]

1x AN/SPS-95 SSR Navigational radar

1x AN/SQS-56 Hull Mounted Sonar

Electronics Warfare Suite: AN/SLY-2 (V) Advanced Integrated Electronic Warfare System (AIEWS)

AN/SLQ-32(V)5 ESM

AN/SSQ-82(V)2 Multiple Unit for Transmission Elimination

AN/SRS-1A(V) Combat Direction Finding

Decoys: AN/SLQ-49

AN/SLQ-25 Nixie

MK-53 Nulka DLS

Fire Control:

1x AN/SPY-6 Main Fire Control System (Capable of detection 20,000 targets and tracking 2,000 targets, while simultaneously guiding 250+ missile or gun engagements)

1x AN/SQQ-89 ASW Combat System

Countermeasures: Towed array sonar utilizing a hull transducer or a towed active transducer or both. It is an integrated ASW Mine Avoidance and Torpedo Defense underwater system

Next Generation Countermeasure (NGCM)

Missile Countermeasures:

1x Naval Theater Laser Defense System(NTLDS): Advanced Free-Electron Laser which target and destroys missiles and some shells, also proven to disable satellites in orbit. (5 MW Max Design Output) [Mounted in superstructure's center]

'Germania'-Class Guided Missile Frigate [FGN]

Commissioned: 7

Waterline Length: 156m

Overall Length: 160.64m

Beam: 18m

Draught: 11m

Average Freeboard 7.51m [Flush Deck at 7m with freeboard of 10m at stem]

cB: .32

Displacement: 9,973 Tons Normal

Gun Armament:

1x 2 M30 Naval Rifle 82mm (3.3") L75

Missile Armament:

2x 48 [6x8] cell Mk170 Escort VLS [1x1x10m cell internal, 1.5x1.5x11.5m external]

Torpedo Armament:

2x Mark 653 Triple 650mm Torpedo Tubes [Above Deck]

Defensive Armament:

2x Mark 30 45mm Autocannon Gun/Missile System [4000 33mm shells + 48 Missiles per system]

1x 2x4 tube 'Aegir' Mark V Anti-Torpedo System [254mm wire guided counter torpedoes, mounted on the bottom of the hull facing down]

Protection Types:

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type A (HNAC Type A):

50% Maraging Steel, 50% Eglin Steel

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type B (HNAC Type :

50% Maraging Steel, 45% Eglin Steel, 5% Austenitic Stainless Steel

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type C (HNAC Type C):

45% Maraging Steel, 55% Eglin Steel

Triple-bottomed reinforced HNAC Type B keel with void spaces over a HNAC Type C frame; Rubber installed in void spaces, HNAC Type C crossbeams installed across bulkheads to provide protection against kinetic attacks.

90mm @ Belt [Tapered 20 Degrees]

5mm @ Lower Belt [Tapered 20 Degrees]

45mm @ Upper Belt/Ends [Tapered 20 Degrees]

5mm @ Top Deck

20mm @ Armored Deck

110mm @ Armored Superstructure [Conning tower]

90mm+Kevlar @bulkheads

Propulsion: 2x 60MW Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors powering 6 shafts. Compulsators provide power from central power system to turrets.

Max Cruise: 37 knots [127,980 shp / 95,473 Kw]

Aircraft: 2 Medium ASW Helicopters [30mx25m Helo Pad, 30mx20m Hangar]

Complement: 210, 20 Flight Crew

Sensors:

1x AN/SPY-6 Multi-function Radar [600km detection, 500km tracking]

1x AN-SPS-106 Long Range Search Radar [800km detection]

2x AN/SSS-205 Infrared Search and Tracking/Short Range Targeting Radar [25/30km tracking range]

1x AN/SPS-95 SSR Navigational radar

1x AN/SQS-56 Hull Mounted Sonar

Electronics Warfare Suite:

AN/SSQ-100 'StrikeNet' Military Uplink Unit

AN/SLY-2 (V) Advanced Integrated Electronic Warfare System (AIEWS)

AN/SLQ-32(V)5 ESM

AN/SSQ-82(V)2 Multiple Unit for Transmission Elimination

AN/SRS-1A(V) Combat Direction Finding

Decoys:

AN/SLQ-49

AN/SLQ-25 Nixie

MK-53 Nulka DLS

Fire Control:

1x AN/SPY-6 Main Fire Control System (Capable of detection 20,000 targets and tracking 2,000 targets, while simultaneously guiding 250+ missile or gun engagements)

1x AN/SQQ-89 ASW Combat System

Countermeasures: Towed array sonar utilizing a hull transducer or a towed active transducer or both. It is an integrated ASW Mine Avoidance and Torpedo Defense underwater system

Next Generation Countermeasure (NGCM)

'Keil'-Class Guided Missile Destroyer [DGN]

Commissioned: 7

Waterline Length: 200m

Overall Length: 206.35m

Beam: 20m

Draught: 11m

Average Freeboard 8.59m [Flush Deck at 8m with freeboard of 11 at stem]

cB: .316

Displacement: 14,029 Tons Normal

Gun Armament:

2x 2 M11 Naval Rifle 130mm (5.1") L75

Missile Armament:

1x 48 [12x4] cell Mk170 Escort VLS [1x1x10m cell internal, 1.5x1.5x11.5m external]

2x 48 [6x8] cell Mk170 Escort VLS

Torpedo Armament:

2x Mark 653 Triple 650mm Torpedo Tubes [Above Deck]

Defensive Armament:

8x Mark 30 45mm Autocannon Gun/Missile System [4000 shells + 48 Missiles per system]

1x 2x4 tube 'Aegir' Mark V Anti-Torpedo System [254mm wire guided counter torpedoes, mounted on the bottom of the hull facing down]

Protection Types:

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type A (HNAC Type A):

50% Maraging Steel, 50% Eglin Steel

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type B (HNAC Type :

50% Maraging Steel, 45% Eglin Steel, 5% Austenitic Stainless Steel

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type C (HNAC Type C):

45% Maraging Steel, 55% Eglin Steel

Triple-bottomed reinforced HNAC Type B keel with void spaces over a HNAC Type C frame; Rubber installed in void spaces, HNAC Type C crossbeams installed across bulkheads to provide protection against kinetic attacks.

90mm @ Belt [Tapered 20 Degrees]

45mm @ Lower Belt [Tapered 20 Degrees]

45mm @ Upper Belt [Tapered 20 Degrees]

127mm @3.54" Turret

5mm @ Top Deck

20mm @ Armored Deck

110mm @ Armored Superstructure [Conning tower]

90mm+Kevlar @bulkheads

Propulsion: 2x 60MW Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors powering 2 shafts. Compulsators provide power from central power system to turrets.

Max Cruise: 37 knots [140,206 shp / 104,594 Kw]

Aircraft: 2 Medium ASW Helicopters [30mx25m Helo Pad, 30mx20m Hangar]

Complement: 322, 20 Flight Crew

Sensors:

1x AN/SPY-6 Multi-function Radar [600km detection, 500km tracking]

1x AN-SPS-106 Long Range Search Radar [800km detection]

2x AN/SSS-205 Infrared Search and Tracking/Short Range Targeting Radar [25/30km tracking range]

1x AN/SPS-95 SSR Navigational radar

1x AN/SQS-56 Hull Mounted Sonar

Electronics Warfare Suite: AN/SLY-2 (V) Advanced Integrated Electronic Warfare System (AIEWS)

AN/SLQ-32(V)5 ESM

AN/SSQ-82(V)2 Multiple Unit for Transmission Elimination

AN/SRS-1A(V) Combat Direction Finding

Decoys: AN/SLQ-49

AN/SLQ-25 Nixie

MK-53 Nulka DLS

Fire Control:

1x AN/SPY-6 Main Fire Control System (Capable of detection 20,000 targets and tracking 2,000 targets, while simultaneously guiding 250+ missile or gun engagements)

1x AN/SQQ-89 ASW Combat System

Countermeasures: Towed array sonar utilizing a hull transducer or a towed active transducer or both. It is an integrated ASW Mine Avoidance and Torpedo Defense underwater system

Next Generation Countermeasure (NGCM)

Jörmungandr-Class Nuclear Attack Submarine (SSN)

Commissioned: 6

Class Leader: NAS Jörmungandr

Classification: Large Attack Submersible, Nuclear (SSN)

Dimensions:

-Length: 152 m

-Beam: 12.9 m

-Draft: 8.9 m

Displacement:

-Surfaced: 12,750 tonnes

-Submerged: 17,250 tonnes

Crew: [82]

-Enlisted: 63

-Officers: 19

-Endurance: 90 Days of stores

Propulsion:

-1x 200 MW SG6I Improved PbBi-cooled Fast Reactor

-2x DSM12 Electric Drives rated at 29,000 Shaft Horsepower each

-2x 850 shp Auxiliary Diesel Generators for emergency operations

-1x Shrouded Pump-Jet Propulsor [2 contra-rotating screws; nine blades each]

Speeds:

-Surfaced: 18 knots

-Surfaced: 7 knots [Auxiliary Diesel Power]

-Submerged: 25 knots [Max Silent Speed]

-Submerged: 35 knots

Operational Depths:

-Maximum Safe: 800 m

-Never-Exceed: 1050 m

-Crush: 1150 m

Hull:

-Dual Hulls Constructed Out of a Non-Magnetic Titanium alloy

-Both Hulls Coated With an Anechoic Polymer

-Outer Hull Equipped With Advanced 'Muffler' Anechoic Tiles

Armament:

-2x 1000mm Torpedo Tubes

-4x 660mm (26”) Torpedo Tubes

-24x 660mm Torpedoes or 2 Naval Mines per Torpedo or Tube-Launched Missiles

-8x 1000mm Torpedoes

-18x VLS tubes [2 x 11 m Tactical]

Systems/Sonar/Radar/Countermeasures:

-'Mark V' photonics mast

-'Mark VI' photonics mast

-RSS-500 Surface Search/Nav Radar (LPI, I-band)

-RPA-II Sail-Mounted Passive/Active Search/Attack Radar

-'Naval Net' Submarine Battle and Communication Systems Suite

-'Sure Beam' Wide-Beam Laser Transceiver

-SPR-VII Passive Ranging & Identification Sonar

-'Anaconda' Tactical Towed Sonar Array

-Mk.IV Active/Passive Sonar Array

-'Fiddler' Torpedo Countermeasures System

-'Quiet-Noise' Active-noise Cancellation System

-SES-7 ECM/ECCM

'Wolfgang Zenker'-Class Fleet Carrier [CVN]

Commissioned: 6

Overall Length: 440.32m

Waterline Length: 420m

Beam: 52.5m

Draught: 15m

Flight Deck Width: 99m

Displacement: 191,891 Tons

Armament:

2x Quad Trainable Armored Box Launchers for RIM-700

12x 'Gungnir' Mark V Combined Gun/Missle System [4000 33mm shells + 48 JAWOHL Missiles per turret]

4x 2x4 Cell 'Aegir' Mark V Torpedo Defence System

Protection Types:

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type A (HNAC Type A):

50% Maraging Steel, 50% Eglin Steel

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type B (HNAC Type :

50% Maraging Steel, 45% Eglin Steel, 5% Austenitic Stainless Steel

Heese Naval Armour Composite Type C (HNAC Type C):

45% Maraging Steel, 40% Eglin Steel, 15% Tungsten Reinforcements

Triple-bottomed reinforced HNAC Type B keel with void spaces over a HNAC Type C frame; Rubber installed in void spaces, HNAC Type C crossbeams installed across bulkheads to provide protection against kinetic attacks.

203mm @Side Armor[All belts]

50mm @Deck

203mm @Armored Conning Tower

203mm @Armored Magazines/Engine Room/Command Rooms

203mm @Bulkheads

Propulsion: 2x 60MW Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors powering 8 shafts. Compulsators provide power from central power system to turrets.

Max Speed: 575,089 shp / 429,016 Kw = 36.00 kts

Aircraft: Up to 110 Fixed Wing Aircraft and 12 Helicopters

Elevators: Four 40x35m (length x width)

Catapults: 6x 100m EM Catapults (49m/sec^2 / 6 Gees)

Complement: 3,200 Ships Company; 3,200 Air Wing

Sensors:

1x AN-SPS-106E Long Range Search Radar [1000km detection]

[25/30km tracking range]

2× AN/SPN-146 air traffic control radars

1x AN/SPN-143 air traffic control radar

1x AN/SPN-144 landing aid radars

1x AN/SPS-95 SSR Navigational radar

1x AN/SQS-56 Hull Mounted Sonar

1x AN/SQQ-89 ASW Combat System

4x AN/SSY-205E Infrared Search and Tracking/Short Range Targeting Radar

Electronics Warfare Suite:

'StrikeNet Military Uplink Unit

AN/SLY-2 (V) Advanced Integrated Electronic Warfare System (AIEWS)

AN/SLQ-32(V)5 ESM

AN/SSQ-82(V)2 Multiple Unit for Transmission Elimination

AN/SRS-1A(V) Combat Direction Finding

Decoys:

AN/SLQ-49

AN/SLQ-25 Nixie

MK-53 Nulka DLS

Countermeasures:

Towed array sonar utilizing a hull transducer or a towed active transducer or both. It is an integrated ASW, Mine Avoidance and Torpedo Defense underwater system

AN/SLQ-48 - Mine Neutralization Vehicle

AN/WLD-1 RMS Remote Minehunting System

Next Generation Countermeasure (NGCM)

MarkIV 45mm Autocannon Gun System

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Product Overview

Weight [barrel]: 110kg Weight [Gun]: 580kg Caliber Length: 65

Grooves: 27 Twist: Progressive Rate of Fire: 1,000rpm

The Mark IV Kill is one of the largest guns in its class, providing enhanced capabilities against airborne threats, including heavy anti-shipping missiles, low-flying aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles and much more. Through the use of new technologies, a revolver operation system and advanced ammunition types the Swift Kill gun system guarantees quick and efficient gunnery, no matter what its job. The Swift Kill makes a great gun for a close-in weapon system for defending naval platforms, including small and large ships, or for a short-range air defense system based on a tracked vehicle platform. In the former role, it has the added advantage of having a large firepower potential against smaller surface craft, including both assymetrical and conventional threats. Much of the technology introduced into this system has already been proven elsewhere.

Gun Mechanics

The Mark IV is a revolver, preferred over the gatling gun type configuration for the sake of initial velocity, given that a revolver has less mass than a gatling gun and therefore is easier to spin. Although, unfortunately, the rate of fire decreases due to bore pressure and barrel heat issues, it's considered a pertinent trade-off given the task of the gun and the miniscule amount of time given to react.2 In this gun's case, the chamber module contains five seperate chambers, allowing for a lower mass over only having four chambers but accounting for the heat related issues of having six chambers. In regards to mass, the 'chamber module'3 can include up to six chambers in its given volume and so only four chambers would mean that the two volumes that could otherwise hold more chambers would be solid masses - so a five-chambered module is considered to be the 'best of both worlds'. The modelo 451 is gas-operated, as inferred, and offers a rate of fire of a maximum of one thousand [1,000] rounds per minute, which is on par with similar-type gun systems of the latest generation.4 The breech supports a dual-feed system, although this should not be confused with 'simultaneous feed'. The dual-feed allows for two separate ammunition stowage bins feeding two separate types of ammunition, consequently either the fire control system (based on the type of detected threat) or the manual user overriding the automatic fire (more likely in a ground-based air defense vehicle) can select the type of ammunition and the gun can load either. Such selective fire gives the weapon system much more operational flexibility and tactical versatility, although the gun must slow or stop in order to change type of ammunition.

As already indicated, the fact that the multiple chambers are all leading into one barrel for repeated and automatic fire means that the barrel will receive a high rate of barrel wear. In order to offer some protection against the inevitable wear of the barrel due to the pressure of expanding propellant gasses, apart from the inclusion of electrothermal-chemical technology - to be explained below -, the Mark 30 includes a chrome-lined barrel. Normally, especially in tank guns and naval guns, this is done to allow the barrel to withstand greater barrel pressure so that the propellant grain can be enlarged, allowing for much greater muzzle velocities; in ground-based and naval-based artillery this means much greater range, while for tanks it means either greater penetrator mass or greater muzzle velocity (generally speaking, equating to greater penetration). On the other hand, both developers were more interested in chrome-plating to extend the lifetime of each barrel to make the gun much more economical, given that the companies have agreed that lethality is at an optimum (in the future, given the threats, priorities can be changed). Although the increase in life-span is only a small percentage of the lifespan without chrome plating, the hundreds of extra rounds may still be important in an extended naval engagement, where barrel replacements might not always be possible. This is more true in larger, more conventional naval battles than against assymetric threats, but conventional warfare is still far more prominent than its assymetrical cousin.

As mentioned above, the Mark IV uses electrothermal-chemical enhancement of its solid propellant. The 'plasma initiator' is embedded inside the round itself, coming into contact with the breech and the electric catalyst as the revolver closes the air gap as it brings the next chamber to the breech. A standard 45mm projectile, in the Swift Kill, will require a 55kJ charge, although ultimately given the rate of fire the required pulsed power supply [which has to be integrated into the combat system and not into the gun] is larger than 100kJ. The pulsed power supply can either be a separate battery system, such as on the Panzer VII or it can be integrated into the vehicle if that vehicle uses hybrid propulsion [although the Lince has an electric transmission, it uses a separate pulsed power supply for the main gun - in the future Lince 1A1 this will resolved]. In any case, the plasma is created by a copper [Cu] diamond string, in the form of a chord, wrapped around the propellant in each individual projectile case [see: 45mm closed telescoping ammunition images]. This string normally vaporizes and iniozes and thereby creates a plasma, which both ignites the propellants [described in the ammunition section] and makes the gasses' expansion much smoother.5 This type of electrothermal-chemical plasma initiation process is known as a flashboard large area emitter, or FLARE - although perhaps not the most modern type of initiation method, it requires a lower amount of energy and is more desirable for a low energy requirement electrothermal-ignition [ETI] round, like the 45mm CTA used by the Swift Kill. In the case of this particular gun, unlike many other systems which take advantage of electrothermal-ignition, the interest is in increasing barrel life, as opposed to increasing muzzle velocity. Due to the fact that the plasma will better control the expansion of the propellant gasses, the propellant will expand in a much more stable matter thereby decreasing pressure on the barrel's inner walls. Some increase in velocity has been attained by this technology, and through the new solid propellant being used, but that has not been a priority.

As introduces in the AGS.250 for the Panzer main battle tank, the Swift Kill also incorporates chemically augmented combustion [CAC], more specifically referred to as hydrogen augmented combustion [HAC].6 In HAC, hydrogen interacts with the molecules of the expanding propellant gasses, decreasing their molecular weight exothermally. This results in a higher number of species and a higher velocity of sound, thereby resulting in a higher impetus [i.e. force], which concludes in higher gun performance. A convinient side effect is also a reduction in barrel pressure, increasing the gun barrel's lifespan by a notable factor. In this way, the technology is actually very similar to electrothermal-chemical propulsion in the way that it helps to control the expansion of the propellant, thus increasing muzzle velocity and spreading the pressure more evenly along the surface of the barrel's interior walls. On the other hand, HAC does not require electrical input and can normally be integrated into the cartridge of the projectile, making it more 'volume efficient' [Es]. As experienced both here, in the Mark IV, and in the CB.125 HAC technology can be easily integrated together with ETC technology, since they are not mutually exclusive. Although the Mark 30 is built as a solid propellant gun, HAC and ETC [which together may be referred to as HYPEC] can be also used with liquid propellants - such as on the AGS.250 and its 125mm brother, the CB.125.

Recoil is dampened by a dual-cylinder recoil mechanism, with an extended recoil length of thirty-five millimeters [35mm]. The recoil cylinders are contructed out of titanium, in order to save weight. The barrel and chambers are manufactured out of quality steel, in order to guarantee the system's ability to survive constant pressure in areas which will come in contact with the expanding propellant gasses. The gun's barrel weighs roughly 110kg, while the recoil mechanism weighs 230kg; the gun system, as a whole, weighs 580kg.7 Apart from the recoil mechanism, weight is saved through the use of composite materials in breech manufacturing.8 These manufacturing techniques have also been used on the AGS.250 and the CB.125 tank cannons, where they have saved between 300 and 600kg worth of weight. Unfortunately, such radical weight savings have not been found easily in the Swift Kill, given the delicacy of its operation and the requirement for a sturdy gun barrel, as well as combustion chamber. Weight savings can be much more radical when it comes to the mount for the close-in weapon station system, and for the short-range air defense vehicle's turret; such weight savings will be witnessed in the product sheets for both future Castillian systems. Then again, mass is important in an air-defense gun due to the requirement for fast traverse to meet the threat as quickly as possible. Indeed, the reason to choose an autocannon over a gatling gun is particularly for this reason! It's safe to assume that future models of the Swift Kill will integrate new manufacturing processes and materials to make the gun lighter.

Ammunition

As indicated beforehand, the Mark IV is designed to acknowledge, engage and defeat a wide variety of threats. On the conventional [naval] battlefield these include light anti-shipping missiles and heavy anti-shipping missiles, which can have various different flight paths, including high angles of attack (AoA) or sea-skimming engagement paths. Furthermore, new heavy anti-shipping missiles, designed to defeat heavily armored capital warships, offer thick ballistic penetrating caps built out of tungsten [W] or depleted uranium [dU], which are difficult to defeat using lower-power armor piercing discarding sabots [APDS] or even advanced hit efficiency and destruction [AHEAD] projectiles. Apart from the missile threat, conventional threats include low-flying reconaissance, utility or attack helicopters, as well as low-flying fixed-wing aircraft. A modern close-in weapon station must be designed to cope with all the relevant threats, or else it will quickly become antiquated. Furthermore, there is also an assymetrical threat posed by terrorist organizations or low-intensity third world government forces. These threats include fast patrol craft and suicide explosives craft, with skeleton crews, and their potential has recently been made very obvious, as more and more large ships are temporarilly lost to these types of attacks. Consequently, the Swift Kill must be designed to defeat the assymetrical dimension, as well. To accomplish this, both LuftKreigs have introduced three principle types of ammunition for the gun, depending on its eventual use in any given weapon system. More specific types of ammunition may be developed as new roles are provided, but until then the main 'loud out' remains: high explosive [HEI], armor piercing discarding sabot [APDS] and advanced hit efficiency and destruction [AHEAD]. Furthermore, apart from the improvements in the gun's propulsion system -as explained above - all the rounds are manufactured with a new solid propellant to maximize efficiency and increase lethality.

The propellant has been designed to maximize performance over a longer-range of ambient temperatures, both inside the combustion chamber and in the barrel. For the past century, or so, solid propellants have been designed almost exclusively out of nitrocellulose [NC], but recently chemical compounds such as cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine [HMX] and triaminoguanadine nitrate [TAGN] which have much larger energy densities. In specific, the solid propellant used by the Swift Kill's ammunition is referred to as TX90 and is primarilly composed of HMX, since this has a higher energy density than TAGN and a lower burning rate. Temperature sensitivity is reduced considerably through the bonding of glycidyl azide polymer [GAP]. TX90 has a specific impetus of 1,300J/g+ and a loading energy density of 1.5g/cm3+, which is superior to most current solid propellants. However, in the sense of its low burning rate TX90 can be characterized as a low vulnerability [LOVA] propellant, much like CL20. The TX90 is a unicharge, similar to the modular charge concept, which means that each submodel is identical [this is not true for modular charges]; each submodel is self-contained with its own igniter, flash suppressant and wear-reducive additive. The propellant charges are manufactured in sticks [contrary to what the images represent, by the way] and are perforated for 'tailored burning'; this has the effect of making the propellant burning rate more progressive, thus increasing gun performance without increasing pressure, by using the perforation to control the burning rate at the beginning and cause a sudden increase after the perforation has been passed. As a consequence, TX90 is a powerful charge meant to decrease temperature sensitivity and increase muzzle velocity, without increasing pressure on the barrel's interior walls.9

The high explosive incendiary [HEI] projectile is a general purpose round which can be used against a wide variety of threats. In most guns of similar caliber to the Swift Kill [20-50mm] they have been replaced largely by rounds such as AHEAD and APDS, although they are still manufactured. Due to the projectile type's simplicity and cheapness, the HEI is still offered as an option for the Swift Kill in the form of the MCP790. This round uses a mechanical proximity fuse and focuses on 'area effect' over penetration, since both the AHEAD and APDS projectiles are clearly superior to the HEI round in this area. It can be used as an anti-personnel projectile, or even as an anti-air projectile, defeating missiles and low-flying aircraft. However, due to its weight and its inferiority to AHEAD in terms of volume of effect it has generally been supplanted in naval close-in weapon systems. Calzado y Bayo, although not relevant to the development of the Swift Kill and her ammunition insofar, has expressed interests in designing, manufacturing and marketting what has been named the XMCP790A, which will include a new fuse to allow for greater muzzle velocities, a decreased high explosive weight and the addition of a penetrating cap. This type of projectile is usually known as a high explosive incendiary/armor piercing [HEIAP] round. Although these type of rounds generally have less penetration than their brethren the sabot, they have the added effect of increasing damage assuming perforation - due to the high explosive. In this respect, they are imilar to the older armor piercing ballistically capped [APBC] projectiles used by large caliber guns.

Round Type: High Explosive [HEI]

Projectile Weight: 2.1kg Explosive Weight: .67kg Bursting Charge: .120kg

Projectile Length [Complete Round]: 31.5cm

Muzzle Velocity: 1.25km/sec

A more common projectile to see in service, at least in the Kreigsmarine, is the advanced hit efficiency and destruction [AHEAD] round. Given the size of the diameter and the larger length of the projectile, as opposed to a 35mm AHEAD round, more subprojectiles are carried - one hundred and eighty [180] as opposed to one hundred and fifty-two [152]. The submunitions are tungsten-alloy [WHA] spheres, designed for both penetration and 'mass effect', to increase the likelyhood of engaging the incoming 'vampire' or 'bogie'. The round is termed the MCP170 and uses a programmable magnetic fuze which uses information provided by the coil velocity gauge near the gun's muzzle in order to automatically compute the correct estimated time to target. The MCP170 has, generally speaking, replaced the MCP790 as the principle cannon round and can be seen stored in conjunction with the MCP35 [see below], the armor piercing discarding sabot. As aforementioned, the MCP170 offers a larger area of effect over the MCP790 and the ability for some penetration of the thicker surfaces of an aircraft or helicopter. For targets which will require much penetration, normally the Mark 30 will switch feeds to the MCP35. However, the MCP170 can also target assymetrical threats, such as light patrol craft or any type of craft which may be used to attack shipping or targeatable surface equipment.

Round Type: Advanced Hit Efficiency and Destruction [AHEAD]

Projectile Weight [Complete Round]: 2.35kg Projectile Weight: .9kg [180 sub-projectiles]

Projectile Length: 31.5cm

Muzzle Velocity: 1.17km/sec

Effective Range [surface Shipping]: 5km Sea-Skimming Missiles: 2km Cruise Missiles: 2.5km Low-Flying Aircraft: 4km

The MC35 developmeny program originally began as the XMC20 frangible armor piercing discarding sabot program, but ultimately it was decided to design and manufacture a full-fledge sub-caliber armor penetrator to provide the Swift Kill with the ability to puncture through the thick penetrating caps, in order to reach the electronics or destroy the high explosive warhead, of the more modern 'heavy anti-shipping missiles' pressed into service in recent years. Originally, the actual penetrator was to follow the rod-tube extension concept of its larger armor piercing fin stabilized discarding sabot for the Panzer's 120mm and 140mm main guns. However, it was decided to go with a penetrator which fit in the non-extended length of the closed telescoping cartridge of the MCP35. As a consequence, the penetrator has a diameter of 14mm and a length of 300mm, with a nose profile roughly 20% of the length - or 60mm. The penetrator is not cylindrical and instead is cruciform shaped to increase penetration, although not dramatically, and is manufactured out of depleted uranium like its larger cousins. Theoritically, at 4,000 meters the MCP35 can penetrate over 200mm of armored steel [hardness of roughly 350BHN]. Normally, the MCP35 is not stored as a stand-alone round and is only issued to one stowage bin. It's a special purpose projectile - it's designed to defeat heavily armored missile threats. It can also be used against helicopters and armored aircraft. It should be noted, however, that this type of round relies heavily on rate of fire to score multiple impacts, in order to hit key targets.

Round Type: Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot [APDS]

Projectile Weight: 1.7kg Penetrator Weight: .6kg Penetrator Material: Depleted Uranium [dU] Projectile Length: 31.5cm

Penetrator Diameter: 1.4cm Penetrator Length: 30cm

Effective Range [sea Skimming Missiles]: 2-2.5km Cruise Missiles: 2.5-3km Surface Targets: 5-5.5km Aircraft: 4-4.5km

Penetration10 [0m]: 239.727mm @ 0º 500m: 234.752mm @ 0º 1.5km: 224.885mm @ 0º 4km: 200.882mm @ 0º

ST-1 Anti Shipping Missile

Dimensions

Length: 11.7m Maximum Diameter: 1.4m Wingspan: 1.7m

Total Mass: 5,122.8kg Payload Mass: 512.28kg

Propulsion Information

Method: Air-turborocket Mean Velocity: Mach 2.3 Terminal Velocity: Mach 5.4

Range: 334nm S-turns: ~4,6,8,10Gs (selectable) Jinking: 5.5Gs

Altitude, Terminal Phase: 5 - 15m Loitering: Variable thrust allows for re-engagement if loss of target

Electronics

Guidance: ARQ-15 Tracking Beacon; ARQ-17 Active-Passive Tracking Radar; terminal stage LRQ-32 LASAR

Autonomy: 'True' Fire-and-forget

The ST-1 operates at ~1-2 Mach during ascension and then increases to up to Mach 5.4 during the terminal/engagement phase. The terminal phase does not necessarily imply a sea-skimming operation. The Sledgehammer II can be programed to commit itself to 'shaking' maneuvers to avoid tracking and enemy counter-munitions, and it can also be programmed to 'pop-up'.

It's loitering capabilities allow it to level out if it loses target and re-engage and sea-skimming level. It's loitering capabilities also mean that the source does not need to have to know exactly what ship it's engaging and where, as long as the missile is fired at the general vicinity of a fleet area.

The anti-shipping warhead used is a a dense and heavy dU penetrating 'cap' of considerable depth, with a subsequent high explosive in a shaped compartment to increase depth of penetration and to cause much damage to an engaged ship. The penetrating cap has a 'buffer cap' composed of copper and separated from the 'main penetrator' by a lining of rubber. This is to avoid a 'decapping' of the penetrator if the penetrator hates a spaced plate.

ST-2 Anti-Shipping Missile

Dimensions

Length: 9m

Diameter: 110cm

Wingspan: 1.2m

Weight: 2200kg

Range, speed & armament

Range: 390km

Speed: Mach 6.5 (terminal velocity) Mach 3.3 - Cruise speed

Warhead: Main explosive body - 500kg OctaNitroCubane; 10 20kg thermite MIRVS embedded into the main explosive core

Once the missile reaches the highest point in flight, gravity combined with the hydrogen injection gives the missile a terminal velocity of mach 6.5. Because of this extreme velocity, and the fact the missile spirals down in a controlled fashion, hitting this proves to be extremely difficult. In the last 3 seconds before impact the spiralling stops and the last reseve of ethanol is injected into the engine along with the last bits of hydrogen to give the missile an even greater penetration effect. If the missile is fired in the most ideal circumstances a penetration angle of 88.6° can be achieved. Under normal circumstances an angle of 86° or even 85° is good enough to cause major damage. This means it goes virtually straight down, punching through the layers of armour. The solid tip of the missile is made of solid tungsten molten under the highest temperature, minimizing the amount of structural faults in the tip.

Normally all the explosive energy is spread in all directions, but in this missile all the energy is focussed on one point: behind the missile. Because the missile penetrates the hull, the explosive energy has only a few ways to go, the way of the least resistance is behind the missile; the path of entry. Once the main explosive core detonates, 10 smaller clusters are also blasted away, causing even more havoc.

Guidance & features

Guidance: Inertial with GPS and optionally TERCOMP, CELLDAR, limited command post RADAR steering. The variant also has an attached minimized Gaussian LIDAR transmitter for infra-red LIDAR operations.

Propulsion: Lancaster & Blair RAMjet fuel and hydrogen injection propulsion. A special alcohol/ethanol reserve is stored in front of the engine, to give the engine one final boost before penetrating the ship's armour.

LV-21 MADCAP Heavy Weight Torpedo

Description: LV-21 is a Most Advanced CAPabilities heavy weight torpedo designed to to provide the Kreigsmarine with a torpedo to give it the power to engage the designs of the world with similarly powerful torpedoes. The LV-21 incorporates two major sensor system, the Common Broadband Advanced Sonar System [CBASS] and the High Resolution Torpedo Array [hrTA]. The CBASS system is expected to give extended preformance to the torpedo's sonar array, including extended range and improved accuracy, while the HRTA is an ultra-modern sensor array composed of fiber optic data feed and a combination of acoustic feed. This will make the torpedo dynamic, meaning it will change in quick situations, and the torpedo can act as a fire and forget missile, although it does have wire guidance. Although the torpedo has a wake its water ramjet engine also makes it extremely silent, and extremely fast at the same time. This gives the LV-21 a Low Probability of Intercept [LPI] and a Low Probability of Recognition [LPR].

Torpedo Warhead: The Av. 36 has a multi-mode detonation 295kg warhead, offering a bulk charge and a direction explosion improving the lethality of the warhead

Length: 8 meters

Diameter: .55 meters

Weight: 1702.9 kilograms

Propulsion: Water Ramjet

Range: 50 Nautical Miles

Velocity: 90 knots

Depth: 914 meters

Cost: $5.5 Million Reichsmark

LV-22 Super Cavitation Torpedo

The LV-22 is the new generation supercavitational torpedo used by the Kriegsmarine, designed to be fired from VLS tubes, saving the Kreigsmarine from the cost of refitting the entire submarine fleet. The torpedo itself is coned shaped like the Shkval and is released in a long cylindrical tube. The tube is designed for the top of break off, to the surface and to be lined with two rails and a 300 volt battery in the back replacing a 'motor'. These two rails release the LV-22 electromagnetically putting it into the water at 3 knots allowing the LV-22 to successfully ignite the engine which is a aluminum burning water ramjet. It can also be fired from a conventional torpedo tube, just like the Shkval; but the inventine VLS tube comes in handy when the SSN is already carrying a full payload.

Warhead: 201 kgs.

Length: 9 meters

Diameter: .55 meters

Weight: 2572.4 kilograms

Propulsion: Water Ramjet

Range: 10 Nautical Miles

Velocity: 200 knots

Depth: 400 meters

Cost: $9.2 Million

LV-23 Ultra-Heavy Torpedo

Design Information Capable of either conventional or nuclear armament, the Broadsword has been designed to serve as a devastating opponent to any enemy's large warships. To pack the enormous destructive power into a single torpedo, the standard Broadsword torpedo measures a full 14.5 metres in length, or 47.6 feet. The Broadsword measures a full 20,000 kg, just over 22 tonnes with a warhead weight of 3,000 kg. It can be used for a fast attack against a large enemy warship with a range of 35 km at 75 knots or at longer range, 100 km at 40 knots.

Guidance and Propulsion To ensure that the Broadsword is not simply an oversized mine and easy pickings for an enemy battlegroup, the torpedo uses a turbine-powered pumpjet propulsion system. As mentioned earlier, the Broadsword can be cold-launched from extreme depths by a submarine or it can be horizontally launched from very large warships. The Broadsword employs an active/passive sonar guidance system for terminal guidance and is initially guided toward its acquired target by the towed sonar array in the submarine.

Specifications

Length: 14.5 metres (horizontal launch variant); 13 metres (vertical launch variant)

Diametre: 1,000 mm (one metre)

Range/Speed: 35 km at 75 knots; 100 km at 40 knots

Propulsion: Turbine-powered pumpjet

Guidance: Inertial with wire guidance (from launching submarine employing towed sonar array); active/passive sonar at terminal range

Weight: 20,000 kg overall; 3,000 kg warhead

ARN-Naval Surface to Air Missile:

Type: Single Stage Dynamic Surface-to-Air Missile/Surface-to-Air Anti-Missile

Length: (total) 1.8 m (missile) 1.5 m

Diameter: (launcher) 105mm (missile) 100mm

Weight: (total) 20 Kg (missile) 15 Kg

Thrust: 1,688kg's at Sea Level

Max Speed: > Mach 3.89

Max Speed for Max range: < Mach 3.5

Guidance: Directable 94 kHz Millimetiric wave Radar

Warhead: Directed APEX Fletchette (containing 2.5 hg ONC)

Fusing: Smart; Impact/Proximity

Max maneuvering: 10 g

Max Range: 15,000 m

Min Range: 100 m

Max effective slant range: 6,000 m

Min effective slant range: 100 m

Max Ceiling: 10,000 m

Air Munitions:

V-4 Long Range Cruise Missile

Length: 14.2m including booster

Diameter: 1.3m

Weight: 12,100kg

Guidance: Inertial with GPS, imaging IR and LADAR at terminal

Propulsion: Pulse detonation, with rocket booster

Speed: Mach 4.5 cruise; Mach 5.4 at terminal;

Range: 4600km air launch, 3800km sea launch

Altitude: 85,000ft altitude

Warhead: 1600kg HE or 600kg penetration

Germania-1 New Tactical Air-to-Surface Missile

Length: 2.8m

Diameter: 26.3cm

Finspan: 56cm

Weight: 318kg

Range: 80km max, 10-50km typical

Speed: Mach 2+

Propulsion: Solid rocket booster with small turbojet

Platforms: Tactical aircraft (Ground attack Bombers) (triple-round launcher for 2000lb-class hardpoints, 1-round launcher for 500-1000lb class hardpoints)

Guidance: GPS-aided INS with LADAR and imaging IR (A) or MMW radar (

Warhead: 120kg penetrating blast fragmentation (A), or 72kg triple-stage HEAT

Valhalla Air-Launched Air Defence Suppression Missile

Length: 6.52m

Diameter: 0.45m

Weight: 890kg

Guidance: Inertial with GPS, passive radar-homing seeker w/ home-on-jam with MMW radar and LADAR at terminal, or passive laser-homing seeker with MMW radar at terminal

Propulsion: Ducted rocket-ramjet with throttle control and 3D TVC

Speed: Mach 4.6

Range: 350km at medium-high altitudes

Warhead: 100kg HE-Frag or flechette

Aside from the addition of a conglomeration of new technologies, the new variant is significant in that it is no longer an anti-radiation missile, but rather an air defence suppression missile capable of striking both radar and LADAR sensors. When compared to the NALSAR, it utilizes a lighter airframe with a more efficient ducted rocket-ramjet system (as demonstrated on modified HARMs), with maneuver control provided by 3D thrust vectoring nozzles, small maneuvering control nozzles mounted aft of the missile, and small fins. In terms of guidance, the B variant utilizes an advanced passive radar-homing seeker with additional home-on-jam capabilities against ground-based radar jammers, though the seeker also has the added capability to engage communication sites and GPS jammers as well, albeit with a lower success rate. Along with this, a MMW radar and LADAR guidance package is also provided, in case if the targeted radar is shut down. When coupled with the GPS system, this can also permit the precision targeting of specific vehicles alongside the targeted radar, such as control centers and the SAM launchers themselves.

Norse Air-Launched Anti-Radiation Missile

Length: 4.6m

Diameter: 0.32m

Weight: 480kg

Guidance: Inertial with GPS, passive radar-homing seeker w/ home-on-jam with MMW radar and LADAR at terminal (D variant), or passive laser-homing seeker with MMW radar at terminal (E variant)

Propulsion: Ducted rocket-ramjet with throttle control and 3d TVC

Speed: Mach 6

Range: 200km at medium-high altitudes

Warhead: 45kg HE-Frag or flechette

Leviathon Air Launched Anti-Shipping Missile

Medium Range Air/Surface Launched Anti-Ship/Surface Missile

Length: 7.25m w/rocket booster(surface launch); 6.7 w/o rocket booster(Air launch)

Diameter: 0.5m [wings folded in]

Wingspan: 2.5m [wings folded out]

Weight: 2300kg w/booster

Guidance: GPS with Foward/Down Looking Terrain Imaging RADAR with active AESA/LPI radar (with home-on-jam and home-on-emission modes) and LADAR at terminal, possible datalink with AWACS/satellites or ship-based combat engagement system

Anti-Ship Attack Mode: Sea-skimming(2m) to impact with twisting pop-up manuver(or regular pop-up).

Surface Attack Mode: Terrain hugging (5m)

Cruise Speed: Mach .8(Surface Attack); Mach .9(Anti-Ship)

Terminal Attack Speed: Mach 2.5 (Surface Attack); Mach 3.5 (Anti-Ship)

Range(Surface Launched): 400km Surface Atack; 350km Anti-Ship

Range(Air Launched-High Altitude): 450km Surface Atack; 375km Anti-Ship

Warhead: 50kg Depleted Uranium Penetrating Cap + 80kg Penetrating HE Warhead or 50kt Nuclear Warhead

Propulsion: Rocket-Ramjet with throttle control and 3D TVC

Countermeasues: Chaff + Flares

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National Defense Protocols

Luftwaffe Air Defense:

Air Defense would be provided by mobile SAM networks, and in some cases, the RADAR supporting them will be mobile.

The Greater German Reich maintains a highly sophisticated Air Defense Network. The Reich's central RADAR network is divided into three levels: Lower , Middle, and Upper Tier Air Defense. Around the country, are hundreds of RADAR sites. At these sites are a combination of OTH-B (Over-the-horizon radar) and other systems. Each RADAR has a 1 MW transmitter and a separate receiver offering coverage over a 60 degree arc between 900 to 3,300 km. The coverage could be extended with additional receivers, providing for complete coverage over a 180 degree arc (each 60 degree portion known as a "sector"). 50% of the RADAR in this network will be mobile.

Working in conjunction with these systems are thousands of underground Surface-to-Air Missile systems. In times of war, these systems will exit the ground from fully automatic extension systems, to fire missiles at enemy aircraft and bombers.

The Luftwaffe also maintains a force of one interceptor and three fighter squadrons in each sector. as quick reaction units. Most of these fighters are always fueled and in combat ready status.

Surface to Air Missile Technology

RIM-703 Long Range Ballistic Missile Interceptor

Status In Service

Primary Mission Exo-Atmospheric Ballistic Missile Interceptor

Secondary Mission Ultra Long Range Surface to Air Missile

Length: 6.50 meters (Kill Vehicle); 8.50 meters (Missile); 2.50 meters (Booster); .50 meter (Cold Launch Booster)

Length Overall: 18.00 meters

Diameter: 1.00m (KV), 1.20 meters (Missile), 1.20 meters (Booster/CLB)

Wingspan: 1.40 meters (Missile)

Weight: 2,500kg (KV) 7,500 kg (missile); 2,500 kg (booster)

Warhead: Kinetic Energy Warhead with 50kg HE Secondary

Stages: 4

Speed: Mach 8

Max Ceiling: 560,000 meters @ 250km

Max Range: 1,250km @ 27,000 meters

Max Slant Range/Ceiling: 280km Ceiling @ 760km Range

Guidance: Active X-band radar homing [sARH and HOJ secondary modes], imaging infrared seeker, encrypted two-way data uplink for course corrections

Booster Propulsion: Solid Fuel Rocket

Main Stage Propulsion: Solid Fuel Rocket w/Thrust Vectoring

KV Propulsion: Solid Fuel Rocket w/Thrust Vectoring

RIM-702 Ultra Long Range Surface to Air Missile

Status In Service

Primary Mission Ultra-Long Range Surface to Air Missile

Secondary Mission Exo-Atmopsheric Ballistic Missile Interceptor

Length: 3.50 meters (Kill Vehicle); 5.50 meters (missile); 1.00 meter (Booster) .50 meter (Cold Launch Booster)

Length Overall: 10.00 meters

Diameter: .533m

Wingspan: 1.57 meter

Weight: 800kg (KV); 1250kg (Missile), 350kg (Booster), 250 kg (CLB)

Warhead: Kinetic Energy Warhead with 100kg CR Secondary

Stages: 4

Speed: Mach 6

Max Ceiling: 250,000 meters @ 200km

Max Range: 800km @ 27,000 meters

Max Slant Range/Ceiling: 160,000 meter Ceiling @ 500km Range

Guidance: Active X-band radar terminal homing [sARH and HOJ secondary modes], imaging infarred seeker, encrypted two-way data uplink for course corrections

Booster Propulsion: Solid Fuel Rocket

Missile Propulsion: Solid Fuel Rocket w/Thrust Vectoring

KV Propulsion: Solid Fuel Rocket w/Thrust Vectoring

RIM-701 Long Range Surface to Air Missile

Status In Service

Primary Mission Long Range Surface to Air Missile

Secondary Mission Endo-Atmospheric Ballistic Missile Interception

Length: 5.50 meters (missile/KV); 1.00 meter (Solid Rocket Booster); .50 meter (Cold Launch Booster)

Length Overall: 7.00 meters

Diameter: .533 (Missile) .533 meters (CLB/Booster)

Wingspan: 1.57 meter

Weight: 1250kg (Missile), 350kg (Booster), 250 kg (CLB)

Warhead: Kinetic Energy Warhead with 50kg CR Secondary

Stages: 3

Speed: Mach 3.5

Max Ceiling: 40,000 meters @ 100km

Max Range: 500,000 meters @ 13,000 meters

Max Slant Range/Ceiling: 33,000 meter Ceiling @ 350km Range

Guidance: Active X-band radar terminal homing [sARH and HOJ secondary modes], imaging infra-red seeker, encrypted two-way data uplink for course corrections

Booster Propulsion: Solid Fuel Rocket w/Thrust Vectoring

Missile Propulsion: Solid Fuel Rocket w/Thrust Vectoring

RIM-700 Medium Range Surface to Air Missile

Status In Service

Primary Mission Medium Range Surface to Air Missile

Secondary Mission: Short Range Anti-Shipping Missile

Length: 3.00 meters (missile/KV); 1.00 meter (Solid Rocket Booster); .50 meter (Cold Launch Booster)

Length Overall: 4.50 meters

Diameter: .34 (Missile) .34 meters (CLB/Booster)

Wingspan: 1.57 meters

Weight: 750kg (Missile), 200kg (Booster), 150 kg (CLB)

Warhead: Kinetic Energy Warhead with 10kg CR Secondary

Stages: 3

Speed: Mach 3.5

Max Ceiling: 30,000 meters @ 40km

Max Range: 100,000 meters @ 13,000 meters

Max Slant Range/Ceiling: 28,000 meter Ceiling @ 70km Range

Max Range Anti-Shipping Mode: 125km

Guidance: Active X-band radar terminal homing [sARH and HOJ secondary modes], imaging infra-red seeker, encrypted two-way data uplink for course corrections

Booster Propulsion: Solid Fuel Rocket w/Thrust Vectoring

Missile Propulsion: Solid Fuel Rocket w/Thrust Vectoring

Coastal Defense

Along the Reich's northern and southern borders, a SOund SUrveillance System is constructed. This will create a small defensive barrier against enemy submarines.

Also, coastal areas have their own OTH - B RADAR suites, which cover a 64 degree wedge-shaped area at ranges between 500 to 1,600 nautical miles (925 to 3,000 km). This keeps track of all ship movements off the German coast. This information is always monitored by underground command facilities.

Railguns, in specially developed recedable hardened silos are being constructed along the Reich coast. These rail guns have a power rating of over 10.64 MJ. It's performance is over 5.8 km/s muzzle velocity, accurate enough to hit a target from 200 nautical miles (370 km) away while shooting at 5 shots per minute.

Aside from all this, retractable undergound silos for Anti - Shipping Missiles and Surface launched Torpedos. Also Naval Mines will be deployed.

Jaws Torpedo/Mine System

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Length: 5.79m

Width: 53.34 (21 inches)

Weight: 1660kg

Warhead Weight: 400kg

Guidance: Passive Sonar. Once anonamly is found, LIDAR, Active Sonar, and MAD kick in. Forward Pumpjets kick in, and rotate the mine so it is facing targets heading. Fire control system calculates intercept point. Normal movement is done by terrain mapping and pre-mapped waypoint map. GPS transmitter allows crew to see where it is. If Jaws is fired in a torpedo mode, it can either use wire gudiance from the launching vehicle, or use the aforementioned SONAR. Jaws will go into a terminal run using it's Sucav warhead, or if it does not find a target, can become a mine.

Propulsion: Normal Pumpjet for propulsion 35 miles at up to 70 knots, Supercavitation for attack phase, 400kts.

Range: 50 miles.

Jaws is highly difficult to detect, and can be deployed in large numbers. The mines are very accurate, and the 400kg warhead is actually overkill, due to the 400kt speed being able to shatter any keel.

'Leviathon' Independent UltraHeavyweight Mine System

Length: 7.56m

Width: 533mm

Weight: 2960kg

Warhead Weight: 1000kg

Guidance: Passive Sonar. Once anonamly is found, LIDAR, Active Sonar, and MAD kick in. Forward Pumpjets kick in, and rotate the mine so it is facing targets heading. Fire control system calculates intercept point. Normal movement is done by terrain mapping and pre-mapped waypoint map. GPS transmitter allows crew to see where it is. If Leviathon is fired in a torpedo mode, it can either use wire gudiance from the launching vehicle, or use the aforementioned SONAR. Leviathon will go into a terminal run using it's Sucav warhead, or if it does not find a target, can become a mine.

Propulsion: Normal Pumpjet for propulsion, Supercavitation for attack phase, 400kts.

Range: 50miles.

Leviathon is highly difficult to detect, and can be deployed in large numbers. The mines are very accurate, and the 400kg warhead is actually overkill, due to the 400kt speed being able to shatter any keel.

ST-2 Anti-Shipping Missile

Dimensions

Length: 9m

Diameter: 110cm

Wingspan: 1.2m

Weight: 2200kg

Range, speed & armament

Range: 390km

Speed: Mach 6.5 (terminal velocity) Mach 3.3 - Cruise speed

Warhead: Main explosive body - 500kg OctaNitroCubane; 10 20kg thermite MIRVS embedded into the main explosive core

Once the missile reaches the highest point in flight, gravity combined with the hydrogen injection gives the missile a terminal velocity of mach 6.5. Because of this extreme velocity, and the fact the missile spirals down in a controlled fashion, hitting this proves to be extremely difficult. In the last 3 seconds before impact the spiralling stops and the last reseve of ethanol is injected into the engine along with the last bits of hydrogen to give the missile an even greater penetration effect. If the missile is fired in the most ideal circumstances a penetration angle of 88.6° can be achieved. Under normal circumstances an angle of 86° or even 85° is good enough to cause major damage. This means it goes virtually straight down, punching through the layers of armour. The solid tip of the missile is made of solid tungsten molten under the highest temperature, minimizing the amount of structural faults in the tip.

Normally all the explosive energy is spread in all directions, but in this missile all the energy is focussed on one point: behind the missile. Because the missile penetrates the hull, the explosive energy has only a few ways to go, the way of the least resistance is behind the missile; the path of entry. Once the main explosive core detonates, 10 smaller clusters are also blasted away, causing even more havoc.

Guidance & features

Guidance: Inertial with GPS and optionally TERCOMP, CELLDAR, limited command post RADAR steering. The variant also has an attached minimized Gaussian LIDAR transmitter for infra-red LIDAR operations.

Propulsion: Lancaster & Blair RAMjet fuel and hydrogen injection propulsion. A special alcohol/ethanol reserve is stored in front of the engine, to give the engine one final boost before penetrating the ship's armour.

LV-21 MADCAP Heavy Weight Torpedo

Description: LV-21 is a Most Advanced CAPabilities heavy weight torpedo designed to to provide the Kreigsmarine with a torpedo to give it the power to engage the designs of the world with similarly powerful torpedoes. The LV-21 incorporates two major sensor system, the Common Broadband Advanced Sonar System [CBASS] and the High Resolution Torpedo Array [hrTA]. The CBASS system is expected to give extended preformance to the torpedo's sonar array, including extended range and improved accuracy, while the HRTA is an ultra-modern sensor array composed of fiber optic data feed and a combination of acoustic feed. This will make the torpedo dynamic, meaning it will change in quick situations, and the torpedo can act as a fire and forget missile, although it does have wire guidance. Although the torpedo has a wake its water ramjet engine also makes it extremely silent, and extremely fast at the same time. This gives the LV-21 a Low Probability of Intercept [LPI] and a Low Probability of Recognition [LPR].

Torpedo Warhead: The Av. 36 has a multi-mode detonation 295kg warhead, offering a bulk charge and a direction explosion improving the lethality of the warhead

Length: 8 meters

Diameter: .55 meters

Weight: 1702.9 kilograms

Propulsion: Water Ramjet

Range: 50 Nautical Miles

Velocity: 90 knots

Depth: 914 meters

Cost: $5.5 Million Reichsmark

LV-22 Super Cavitation Torpedo

The LV-22 is the new generation supercavitational torpedo used by the Kriegsmarine, designed to be fired from VLS tubes, saving the Kreigsmarine from the cost of refitting the entire submarine fleet. The torpedo itself is coned shaped like the Shkval and is released in a long cylindrical tube. The tube is designed for the top of break off, to the surface and to be lined with two rails and a 300 volt battery in the back replacing a 'motor'. These two rails release the LV-22 electromagnetically putting it into the water at 3 knots allowing the LV-22 to successfully ignite the engine which is a aluminum burning water ramjet. It can also be fired from a conventional torpedo tube, just like the Shkval; but the inventine VLS tube comes in handy when the SSN is already carrying a full payload.

Warhead: 201 kgs.

Length: 9 meters

Diameter: .55 meters

Weight: 2572.4 kilograms

Propulsion: Water Ramjet

Range: 10 Nautical Miles

Velocity: 200 knots

Depth: 400 meters

Cost: $9.2 Million

LV-23 Ultra-Heavy Torpedo

Design Information Capable of either conventional or nuclear armament, the Broadsword has been designed to serve as a devastating opponent to any enemy's large warships. To pack the enormous destructive power into a single torpedo, the standard Broadsword torpedo measures a full 14.5 metres in length, or 47.6 feet. The Broadsword measures a full 20,000 kg, just over 22 tonnes with a warhead weight of 3,000 kg. It can be used for a fast attack against a large enemy warship with a range of 35 km at 75 knots or at longer range, 100 km at 40 knots.

Guidance and Propulsion To ensure that the Broadsword is not simply an oversized mine and easy pickings for an enemy battlegroup, the torpedo uses a turbine-powered pumpjet propulsion system. As mentioned earlier, the Broadsword can be cold-launched from extreme depths by a submarine or it can be horizontally launched from very large warships. The Broadsword employs an active/passive sonar guidance system for terminal guidance and is initially guided toward its acquired target by the towed sonar array in the submarine.

Specifications

Length: 14.5 metres (horizontal launch variant); 13 metres (vertical launch variant)

Diametre: 1,000 mm (one metre)

Range/Speed: 35 km at 75 knots; 100 km at 40 knots

Propulsion: Turbine-powered pumpjet

Guidance: Inertial with wire guidance (from launching submarine employing towed sonar array); active/passive sonar at terminal range

Weight: 20,000 kg overall; 3,000 kg warhead

Land Defense

The Reich is divided into four military districts: The Northern Military Sector, The Southern Military Sector, the Eastern Sector and Western Sectors. In each sector is a Military commander, responsible for organizing the defense and keeping the troops in his area of responsibility ready to deploy at any moment. The Commanders report directly to the Supreme Commander of the Reich Armed Forces.

Inside of each sector, the following forces are allocated:

50,000 Troops, 200 Tanks + Artillery and other support units.

These forces are designed to defend against all enemy invasions, until relieved by other elements of the Reich Armed Forces.

Static, receeding land defenses will also be constructed. These will include the the following:

Goliath Fixed Heavy Artillery Platform

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Height: Gun lowered: 5.1 meters

Gun at maximum angle: 9.7 meters

Width: 8.4 meters

Turret length: 8.6 meters

Protection: Control: Remote

Armament: 1x5 barrel 155mm

location: All German borders, outside of major cities and some along the coast.

Flak-10 Anti-Air Fixed Defensive Gun

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Width: 3.1 meters

Turret length: 3.7 meters

Protection: 2 layers (4 in. thick) of Kevlar type material; 1 layer (1 in. thick) of aluminum foil around vital sensors and wiring; 3 layers (6 in. thick) of titanium reinforced steel

Control: Remote or Automatic

Armament: 1 x 35mm 6 barreled Metal Storm cannon

Purpose: Protection for various static defensive system.

Defense: Can Receed into ground incase of attack.

Shark Anti-Personnel/Anti-Armor Fixed Defensive Turret

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Height: 4 meters

Width: 3.7 meters

Turret length: 7 meters

Protection: 3 layers (3 ft thick) of rebar-reinforced concrete at the base; 1 layer (2 in thick) of titanium/steel composite mesh throughout frame; 2 layers (6 in thick) of ablative armor/Kevlar type material on upper half of frame

Control: Manual, Remote or automatic

Armament: 2 x 90mm Vulcan autocannons, capable of firing regular bullets or explosive projectiles

Construction Positions: These systems will be used in several areas, most notably the edges of cities in case of invasion. The Shark will also be employed along the border, as a precursor to stop an invasion before it happens and as a fast response to an actual invasion. It will also be placed at harbors and docks, as well as points the border any body of water.

Defense: Can Receed into ground incase of attack. Additionally, Shark" a small RADAR/IR/LIDAR and turret/gun movement system have been upgraded to allow the Shark to engage incoming Missiles/ATGMs with "Pop Rock" Canister system, also the refit included the addition of Centrifuge CIWS system to engage ATGMs and a 15.5mm gun for close infantry surpression.

45mm Autocannon Gun System

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Product Overview

Weight [barrel]: 110kg Weight [Gun]: 580kg Caliber Length: 65

Grooves: 27 Twist: Progressive Rate of Fire: 1,000rpm

The Mark IV Kill is one of the largest guns in its class, providing enhanced capabilities against airborne threats, including heavy anti-shipping missiles, low-flying aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles and much more. Through the use of new technologies, a revolver operation system and advanced ammunition types the Swift Kill gun system guarantees quick and efficient gunnery, no matter what its job. The Swift Kill makes a great gun for a close-in weapon system for defending naval platforms, including small and large ships, or for a short-range air defense system based on a tracked vehicle platform. In the former role, it has the added advantage of having a large firepower potential against smaller surface craft, including both assymetrical and conventional threats. Much of the technology introduced into this system has already been proven elsewhere.

Gun Mechanics

The Mark IV is a revolver, preferred over the gatling gun type configuration for the sake of initial velocity, given that a revolver has less mass than a gatling gun and therefore is easier to spin. Although, unfortunately, the rate of fire decreases due to bore pressure and barrel heat issues, it's considered a pertinent trade-off given the task of the gun and the miniscule amount of time given to react.2 In this gun's case, the chamber module contains five seperate chambers, allowing for a lower mass over only having four chambers but accounting for the heat related issues of having six chambers. In regards to mass, the 'chamber module'3 can include up to six chambers in its given volume and so only four chambers would mean that the two volumes that could otherwise hold more chambers would be solid masses - so a five-chambered module is considered to be the 'best of both worlds'. The modelo 451 is gas-operated, as inferred, and offers a rate of fire of a maximum of one thousand [1,000] rounds per minute, which is on par with similar-type gun systems of the latest generation.4 The breech supports a dual-feed system, although this should not be confused with 'simultaneous feed'. The dual-feed allows for two separate ammunition stowage bins feeding two separate types of ammunition, consequently either the fire control system (based on the type of detected threat) or the manual user overriding the automatic fire (more likely in a ground-based air defense vehicle) can select the type of ammunition and the gun can load either. Such selective fire gives the weapon system much more operational flexibility and tactical versatility, although the gun must slow or stop in order to change type of ammunition.

As already indicated, the fact that the multiple chambers are all leading into one barrel for repeated and automatic fire means that the barrel will receive a high rate of barrel wear. In order to offer some protection against the inevitable wear of the barrel due to the pressure of expanding propellant gasses, apart from the inclusion of electrothermal-chemical technology - to be explained below -, the Mark 30 includes a chrome-lined barrel. Normally, especially in tank guns and naval guns, this is done to allow the barrel to withstand greater barrel pressure so that the propellant grain can be enlarged, allowing for much greater muzzle velocities; in ground-based and naval-based artillery this means much greater range, while for tanks it means either greater penetrator mass or greater muzzle velocity (generally speaking, equating to greater penetration). On the other hand, both developers were more interested in chrome-plating to extend the lifetime of each barrel to make the gun much more economical, given that the companies have agreed that lethality is at an optimum (in the future, given the threats, priorities can be changed). Although the increase in life-span is only a small percentage of the lifespan without chrome plating, the hundreds of extra rounds may still be important in an extended naval engagement, where barrel replacements might not always be possible. This is more true in larger, more conventional naval battles than against assymetric threats, but conventional warfare is still far more prominent than its assymetrical cousin.

As mentioned above, the Mark IV uses electrothermal-chemical enhancement of its solid propellant. The 'plasma initiator' is embedded inside the round itself, coming into contact with the breech and the electric catalyst as the revolver closes the air gap as it brings the next chamber to the breech. A standard 45mm projectile, in the Swift Kill, will require a 55kJ charge, although ultimately given the rate of fire the required pulsed power supply [which has to be integrated into the combat system and not into the gun] is larger than 100kJ. The pulsed power supply can either be a separate battery system, such as the Panzer VII it can be integrated into the vehicle if that vehicle uses hybrid propulsion [although the Lince has an electric transmission, it uses a separate pulsed power supply for the main gun - in the future Lince 1A1 this will resolved]. In any case, the plasma is created by a copper [Cu] diamond string, in the form of a chord, wrapped around the propellant in each individual projectile case [see: 45mm closed telescoping ammunition images]. This string normally vaporizes and iniozes and thereby creates a plasma, which both ignites the propellants [described in the ammunition section] and makes the gasses' expansion much smoother.5 This type of electrothermal-chemical plasma initiation process is known as a flashboard large area emitter, or FLARE - although perhaps not the most modern type of initiation method, it requires a lower amount of energy and is more desirable for a low energy requirement electrothermal-ignition [ETI] round, like the 45mm CTA used by the Swift Kill. In the case of this particular gun, unlike many other systems which take advantage of electrothermal-ignition, the interest is in increasing barrel life, as opposed to increasing muzzle velocity. Due to the fact that the plasma will better control the expansion of the propellant gasses, the propellant will expand in a much more stable matter thereby decreasing pressure on the barrel's inner walls. Some increase in velocity has been attained by this technology, and through the new solid propellant being used, but that has not been a priority.

As introduces in the AGS.250 for the Panzer main battle tank, the Swift Kill also incorporates chemically augmented combustion [CAC], more specifically referred to as hydrogen augmented combustion [HAC].6 In HAC, hydrogen interacts with the molecules of the expanding propellant gasses, decreasing their molecular weight exothermally. This results in a higher number of species and a higher velocity of sound, thereby resulting in a higher impetus [i.e. force], which concludes in higher gun performance. A convinient side effect is also a reduction in barrel pressure, increasing the gun barrel's lifespan by a notable factor. In this way, the technology is actually very similar to electrothermal-chemical propulsion in the way that it helps to control the expansion of the propellant, thus increasing muzzle velocity and spreading the pressure more evenly along the surface of the barrel's interior walls. On the other hand, HAC does not require electrical input and can normally be integrated into the cartridge of the projectile, making it more 'volume efficient' [Es]. As experienced both here, in the Mark IV, and in the CB.125 HAC technology can be easily integrated together with ETC technology, since they are not mutually exclusive. Although the Mark 30 is built as a solid propellant gun, HAC and ETC [which together may be referred to as HYPEC] can be also used with liquid propellants - such as on the AGS.250 and its 125mm brother, the CB.125.

Recoil is dampened by a dual-cylinder recoil mechanism, with an extended recoil length of thirty-five millimeters [35mm]. The recoil cylinders are contructed out of titanium, in order to save weight. The barrel and chambers are manufactured out of quality steel, in order to guarantee the system's ability to survive constant pressure in areas which will come in contact with the expanding propellant gasses. The gun's barrel weighs roughly 110kg, while the recoil mechanism weighs 230kg; the gun system, as a whole, weighs 580kg.7 Apart from the recoil mechanism, weight is saved through the use of composite materials in breech manufacturing.8 These manufacturing techniques have also been used on the AGS.250 and the CB.125 tank cannons, where they have saved between 300 and 600kg worth of weight. Unfortunately, such radical weight savings have not been found easily in the Swift Kill, given the delicacy of its operation and the requirement for a sturdy gun barrel, as well as combustion chamber. Weight savings can be much more radical when it comes to the mount for the close-in weapon station system, and for the short-range air defense vehicle's turret; such weight savings will be witnessed in the product sheets for both future Castillian systems. Then again, mass is important in an air-defense gun due to the requirement for fast traverse to meet the threat as quickly as possible. Indeed, the reason to choose an autocannon over a gatling gun is particularly for this reason! It's safe to assume that future models of the Swift Kill will integrate new manufacturing processes and materials to make the gun lighter.

Ammunition

As indicated beforehand, the Mark IV is designed to acknowledge, engage and defeat a wide variety of threats. On the conventional [naval] battlefield these include light anti-shipping missiles and heavy anti-shipping missiles, which can have various different flight paths, including high angles of attack (AoA) or sea-skimming engagement paths. Furthermore, new heavy anti-shipping missiles, designed to defeat heavily armored capital warships, offer thick ballistic penetrating caps built out of tungsten [W] or depleted uranium [dU], which are difficult to defeat using lower-power armor piercing discarding sabots [APDS] or even advanced hit efficiency and destruction [AHEAD] projectiles. Apart from the missile threat, conventional threats include low-flying reconaissance, utility or attack helicopters, as well as low-flying fixed-wing aircraft. A modern close-in weapon station must be designed to cope with all the relevant threats, or else it will quickly become antiquated. Furthermore, there is also an assymetrical threat posed by terrorist organizations or low-intensity third world government forces. These threats include fast patrol craft and suicide explosives craft, with skeleton crews, and their potential has recently been made very obvious, as more and more large ships are temporarilly lost to these types of attacks. Consequently, the Swift Kill must be designed to defeat the assymetrical dimension, as well. To accomplish this, both LuftKreigs have introduced three principle types of ammunition for the gun, depending on its eventual use in any given weapon system. More specific types of ammunition may be developed as new roles are provided, but until then the main 'loud out' remains: high explosive [HEI], armor piercing discarding sabot [APDS] and advanced hit efficiency and destruction [AHEAD]. Furthermore, apart from the improvements in the gun's propulsion system -as explained above - all the rounds are manufactured with a new solid propellant to maximize efficiency and increase lethality.

The propellant has been designed to maximize performance over a longer-range of ambient temperatures, both inside the combustion chamber and in the barrel. For the past century, or so, solid propellants have been designed almost exclusively out of nitrocellulose [NC], but recently chemical compounds such as cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine [HMX] and triaminoguanadine nitrate [TAGN] which have much larger energy densities. In specific, the solid propellant used by the Swift Kill's ammunition is referred to as TX90 and is primarilly composed of HMX, since this has a higher energy density than TAGN and a lower burning rate. Temperature sensitivity is reduced considerably through the bonding of glycidyl azide polymer [GAP]. TX90 has a specific impetus of 1,300J/g+ and a loading energy density of 1.5g/cm3+, which is superior to most current solid propellants. However, in the sense of its low burning rate TX90 can be characterized as a low vulnerability [LOVA] propellant, much like CL20. The TX90 is a unicharge, similar to the modular charge concept, which means that each submodel is identical [this is not true for modular charges]; each submodel is self-contained with its own igniter, flash suppressant and wear-reducive additive. The propellant charges are manufactured in sticks [contrary to what the images represent, by the way] and are perforated for 'tailored burning'; this has the effect of making the propellant burning rate more progressive, thus increasing gun performance without increasing pressure, by using the perforation to control the burning rate at the beginning and cause a sudden increase after the perforation has been passed. As a consequence, TX90 is a powerful charge meant to decrease temperature sensitivity and increase muzzle velocity, without increasing pressure on the barrel's interior walls.9

The high explosive incendiary [HEI] projectile is a general purpose round which can be used against a wide variety of threats. In most guns of similar caliber to the Swift Kill [20-50mm] they have been replaced largely by rounds such as AHEAD and APDS, although they are still manufactured. Due to the projectile type's simplicity and cheapness, the HEI is still offered as an option for the Swift Kill in the form of the MCP790. This round uses a mechanical proximity fuse and focuses on 'area effect' over penetration, since both the AHEAD and APDS projectiles are clearly superior to the HEI round in this area. It can be used as an anti-personnel projectile, or even as an anti-air projectile, defeating missiles and low-flying aircraft. However, due to its weight and its inferiority to AHEAD in terms of volume of effect it has generally been supplanted in naval close-in weapon systems. Calzado y Bayo, although not relevant to the development of the Swift Kill and her ammunition insofar, has expressed interests in designing, manufacturing and marketting what has been named the XMCP790A, which will include a new fuse to allow for greater muzzle velocities, a decreased high explosive weight and the addition of a penetrating cap. This type of projectile is usually known as a high explosive incendiary/armor piercing [HEIAP] round. Although these type of rounds generally have less penetration than their brethren the sabot, they have the added effect of increasing damage assuming perforation - due to the high explosive. In this respect, they are imilar to the older armor piercing ballistically capped [APBC] projectiles used by large caliber guns.

Round Type: High Explosive [HEI]

Projectile Weight: 2.1kg Explosive Weight: .67kg Bursting Charge: .120kg

Projectile Length [Complete Round]: 31.5cm

Muzzle Velocity: 1.25km/sec

The MC35 developmeny program originally began as the XMC20 frangible armor piercing discarding sabot program, but ultimately it was decided to design and manufacture a full-fledge sub-caliber armor penetrator to provide the Swift Kill with the ability to puncture through the thick penetrating caps, in order to reach the electronics or destroy the high explosive warhead, of the more modern 'heavy anti-shipping missiles' pressed into service in recent years. Originally, the actual penetrator was to follow the rod-tube extension concept of its larger armor piercing fin stabilized discarding sabot for the Panzer VII's 120mm and 140mm main guns. However, it was decided to go with a penetrator which fit in the non-extended length of the closed telescoping cartridge of the MCP35. As a consequence, the penetrator has a diameter of 14mm and a length of 300mm, with a nose profile roughly 20% of the length - or 60mm. The penetrator is not cylindrical and instead is cruciform shaped to increase penetration, although not dramatically, and is manufactured out of depleted uranium like its larger cousins. Theoritically, at 4,000 meters the MCP35 can penetrate over 200mm of armored steel [hardness of roughly 350BHN]. Normally, the MCP35 is not stored as a stand-alone round and is only issued to one stowage bin. It's a special purpose projectile - it's designed to defeat heavily armored missile threats. It can also be used against helicopters and armored aircraft. It should be noted, however, that this type of round relies heavily on rate of fire to score multiple impacts, in order to hit key targets.

Round Type: Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot [APDS]

Projectile Weight: 1.7kg Penetrator Weight: .6kg Penetrator Material: Depleted Uranium [dU] Projectile Length: 31.5cm

Penetrator Diameter: 1.4cm Penetrator Length: 30cm

Effective Range: 2.5-3km Surface Targets: 5-5.5km Aircraft: 4-4.5km

Penetration10 [0m]: 239.727mm @ 0º 500m: 234.752mm @ 0º 1.5km: 224.885mm @ 0º 4km: 200.882mm @ 0º

Creeper Anti-Tank Heavy Fixed Defensive Turret

Height: 4 meters

Width: 3.7 meters

Turret length: 7 meters

Protection: 3 layers (3 ft thick) of rebar-reinforced concrete at the base; 1 layer (2 in thick) of titanium/steel composite mesh throughout frame; 2 layers (6 in thick) of ablative armor/Kevlar type material on upper half of frame

Control: Manual, Remote or automatic

Armament: 155mm ETC Cannon

Building Position: These systems will be used in several areas, most notably the edges of cities in case of invasion. The Creeper will also be employed along the border, as a precursor to stop an invasion before it happens and as a fast response to an actual invasion. It will also be placed at harbors and docks, as well as points the border any body of water.

Reich Space Force: Offensive and Strategic Deterrent:

The Space Force Mission is to defend the Reich through the control and exploitation of space. Space Command makes space reliable to the warfighter (i.e. forces personnel) by continuously improving the command's ability to provide and support combat forces — assuring their access to space. In addition, the command's ICBM forces deter any adversary contemplating the use of weapons of mass destruction

The Space Force operates ground-based radars used primarily for ballistic missile warning include the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System, ST Tactical ICBM Detection System. The S.H.I.E.L.D Optical Tracking Identification Facility, Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance System, Passive Space Surveillance System, phased-array and mechanical radars provide primary space surveillance coverage.

As part of the Space Force's Defense, all satellites are geo-synced.

Space Force Technology

V-2012-1/2-A/B/C/D/E/ Intercontinential Ballistic Missile

Type: Silo/Train/Road - Cold-Launched Ballistic Missile

Primary Function: Strategic First Strike; Deterrent

Manufacturer/Contractor: Los Canas Weapons Industries, Exo-Atmospheric Division

Length: 24.75m

Diameter: 3.5m

Launch Weight: 125,800kg (277,000 lb)

Maximum Payload: 5,200kg; 6,500kg

Range: Unlimited for Intended Purposes[Orbital Trajectory]; 18,000km [sub-Orbital]

Maximum Speed: 32,000km/h [Mach 26.8]

Propulsion: Four Stage Solid Fuel Rocket

Guidance System: Inertial with Stellar Sensor Update; Terrain Matching Radar for MaIRVs

CEP: 30m

Penetration Aids: Six Decoys[More Depending on Loadout]; Contains Radaring Jamming, Chaff, Flares, and 6 Hypersonic ABM Interceptors

Warhead Variants[LEO Trajectory[1]]:

[A] 10x 'Blue Star' W89 500kT 'Clean' Thermonuclear MaIRVs

[ B ] 2x 'Blue Glow' W90 700KT Enchanced Radiation Thermonuclear MaIRVs

[C] 6x 'Blue Star' W89-ER 500kT 'Enhanced Radiation' Thermonuclear MaIRVs

[D] 8x 'Blue Rod' SIM-666 Anti-Satellite Kinetic Kill Vehicle

[E] 9x 'Blue Point' W87 150kT Thermonuclear MaIRVs

Warhead Variants[sub-Orbit Trajectory[2]]:

[A] 10x 'Blue Star' W89 500kT 'Clean' Thermonuclear MaIRVs

[ B ] 2x 'Blue Glow' W90 700KT Enchanced Radiation Thermonuclear MaIRVs

[C] 5x 'Blue Star' W89-ER 500kT 'Enhanced Radiation' Thermonuclear MaIRVs

[D] 3x 'Blue Point' W87 150kT Thermonuclear MaIRVs

Yes heavy, big, truck transportable by a big big rig, and trains! It's like the Topol-M truck launcher, maybe midgetman style though, supposed to be train launchable like the peacekeeper too. Capable of being fired from shallow depths, yes, silos constructed under shallows water.

RIM-703 "Sparta" Long Range Ballistic Missile Interceptor

Status In Service

Primary Mission Exo-Atmospheric Ballistic Missile Interceptor

Secondary Mission Ultra Long Range Surface to Air Missile

Length: 6.50 meters (Kill Vehicle); 8.50 meters (Missile); 2.50 meters (Booster); .50 meter (Cold Launch Booster)

Length Overall: 18.00 meters

Diameter: 1.00m (KV), 1.20 meters (Missile), 1.20 meters (Booster/CLB)

Wingspan: 1.40 meters (Missile)

Weight: 2,500kg (KV) 7,500 kg (missile); 2,500 kg (booster)

Warhead: Kinetic Energy Warhead with 50kg HE Secondary

Stages: 4

Speed: Mach 8

Max Ceiling: 560,000 meters @ 250km

Max Range: 1,250km @ 27,000 meters

Max Slant Range/Ceiling: 280km Ceiling @ 760km Range

Guidance: Active X-band radar homing [sARH and HOJ secondary modes], imaging infrared seeker, encrypted two-way data uplink for course corrections

Booster Propulsion: Solid Fuel Rocket

Main Stage Propulsion: Solid Fuel Rocket w/Thrust Vectoring

KV Propulsion: Solid Fuel Rocket w/Thrust Vectoring

Civilian Protection

With the production of military defenses well underway, the next step for Fortress Germania was inacted. This next step was for civilian protection.

In all major cities and on the outskirts, various WMD protection systems were set up. These systems will use Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) equipment. They will be able to detect WMDs in an number of ways.

1. Photons from the beam scatter (Raman scattering) when they collide with the suspected agent and some are sent back to a telescope on the sensor platform.

2. Every agent has a specific scattering pattern, therefore the received pattern is compared to a database of known agents (there are tens of thousands in the system) to look for a match.

3. Low false-positive returns: false alarms have devastating economic and psychological impact.

4. Continuous monitoring and feedback; including all-weather and day/night functioning.

5. Ability to track movement of airborne or surface agents

In addition, the Reich will begin the mass production and handing out of various suits for the civilian population. Citizens will be encouraged to stop by military areas and pick them up. These suits will be Level C suits and include coveralls or splash suits providing a lesser level of protection than Level B and will be worn with a respirator or gas mask.

Throughout the Reich, thousands of underground bunkers will be built. These massive underground bunkers will be capable of holding over 14,000 citizens, each. Each bunker will contain a large enough supply of food and other items to last well-over 60 days.

Electromagnetic pulse Protection

All major communications have been hardened against EMP. Military equipment has also been hardened against EMP, with most important underground communication centers resorting to the use of gold-plated vacuum tubes, to ensure maximum protection.

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The Ersatzstaat

Directed from on high by the Kaiser of the Greater German Reich, the Commission for the Preservation of the New Order (COMPNOR), is a massive, inclusive, civic organization dedicated to the furthering and defense of the New Order. COMPNOR ideals are cherished by its adherents. Administered by the Select Committee, COMPNOR actively works to build the ethics and ideologies of the New Order into the lives and composition of the citizenry. The German way of life is defined and advanced within COMPNOR, spanning education, instruction, morality, civic responsibility, punishment and detention, evaluation, improvement, and progress. It falls to COMPNOR to lay the foundation that the future of the Reich is built upon.

The Select Committee

The Select Committee of the Commission for the Preservation of the New Order oversees the entire range of COMPNOR programs and organizations and acted as the supreme authority of the Ersatzstaat, combining the functions of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Records of the Select Committee's membership remain sketchy. The Charter allowed for election or honorary appointment, but over time these fell into disuse in favor of co-optation, whereby the Select Committee (like the Supreme Court) became a self-selecting elite. Under Scolar Visari, the Chairman of the Select Committee had been the virtual dictator of COMPNOR, with no checks and balances.

New Order Political Party

The political arm of the Ersatzstaat, the New Order Party is the single largest political party in the Reich, and was at the center of its own small constellation of organizations (such as the New Order Leadership Council, the Antonius Institute, and the New Order Rectors Association). It had chapters in all Imperial jurisdictions and claimed 100% of the Reichstag's votes. Its party platform is unabashedly both populist and authoritarian; it advocated sweeping changes to existing power structures to make them conform with the Party's official ideology of "Correct Thought," a totalitarian system designed as a practical application of nationalism, and boast that vigorous application of Correct Thought allowed an individual to live his entire life without ever having to make a single decision for himself. In theory, the local party organizations were more or less autonomous, but in practice it had a strictly enforced system of party discipline, with all major policy decisions dictated from further up the chain of command, ultimately culminating in the New Order Committee, the unelected junta that controlled the overall New Order Party of the Greater German Reich.

Sub Adult Group

The oldest and best-established branch of the Ersatzstaat, the Sub-Adult Group (SAGroup) is the largest single component of COMPNOR and its extended family of organizations — and had been the largest single component of COMPOR before it. It provided education, sports, personal fitness, child care, overnight camping, employment preparation training, and private recreation, and spends Reichmarks hand over fist to ensure that all of its services were the best available wherever it operated; as a result, SAGroup became the Reich's coalition's most powerful recruiting tool, and it solidified its standing in the public's estimation during the Seperatist, when it became known for staging lavish rallies and demonstrations to sustain public morale, often producing spectacles with casts of thousands. Under the Reich, SAGroupHQ's propensity for sparing no expense became even more pronounced, and the uniform quality of resources and facilities found at SAGroups throughout the Reich gained nearly universal praise. Unlike the quango structure favored by the rest of COMPNOR, SAGroup was organized more as a voluntary unincorporated association; except for its relatively small cadre of professionals, the majority of its participants were members rather than full-time employees.

SAGEducation(SAGEd)

SAGEducation succeeds in bringing learning to billions of young beings who had fallen into the cracks during the breakup of the Old Republic. It is largely unaffected by the changes in the rest of the organization, and continues to be popular. SAGroup's educational division, often criticized by ideological monitors, political reliability observers, cultural regulators, and thought-policemen as being far too open-minded in its approach ("Too much critical thinking, not enough Correct Thought," was the perennial complaint. The high success rate of SAGEducation kept interference to a minimum, and most graduates went on to take jobs with the SSI, the New Order Party, Ersatzstaat affiliates, or even COMPNOR itself — the most enthusiastic "True Believers" it produced accounted for most of the military's seemingly limitless pool of volunteers — , making it too valuable as a recruiting ground to risk much tampering.

SAGRecreation

SAGRecreation was created to provide wholesome activities for member beings. Soccer is their one real triumph, a competitive sport. Everything else suggested by SAGroupHQ is often ignored by the SAGRec personnel. Some branches of SAGRec have been filled with future military hopefuls. These SAGRecs engage in harsh physical training and wargames as an introduction to military training.

Motivation

The Motivation branch of the Sub-Adult Group handled members of the SAGroup who had shown signs of dissent or had failed to live up to the ideals of the New Order. Motivation almost always succeeded in turning their troubled SAGroup youths into useful, dedicated citizens who would serve the New Order.

Recruitment

Recruitment was responsible for recruiting young children and teenagers into the Sub-Adult Group, offering impressive incentives to parents to send their children off to become better citizens under the New Order. Members were given exclusive access to breaking news, a free subscription to Iron Will and a special welcome message from Visari himself.

Coalition for Progress

Playing the role of the "Right Hand" to Improvements' "Left," the Coalition for Progress was the Ersatzstaat's cultural branch, and one of the largest of its "pillars." Progress was one of the most efficient information-processing bodies ever assembled, with a Sector Monitor office in every Subject of the country. From his headquarters at the Hall of the Mirrors, the General Secretary of Progress oversaw an enormous body of experts on art, science, commerce, education, industry, business, law, and entertainment. Through its countless subisidiaries and administrative corporations, Progress gathered information and statistics about nearly every aspect of social and commercial life in the Empire, enabling the Ersatzstaat to detect trends and act on them far sooner than any other organized body (often including the Imperial State itself). Such wildly varying entities as the Reich Board of Culture, the Reich Chamber of Musicians, and the Office of Progressive Justice were part of Progress's constellation; it coordinated the activities of a dizzying array of corporations, committees, and boards, and served as the parent organization to the majority of the assimilation efforts. Any pattern of activity which strikes Progress as suspicious is analyzed, and the findings are passed on to the Reich Security Bureau.

Gau Monitor

Each Gau had a monitor, a collection of agencies whose intended purpose was to report on the cultural progress within a sector toward the enhancement and perfection of the New Order, and did rough sorting of data by division type. Below the Sector Monitor were the various divisions made up of COMPNOR members dispersed throughout the systems of the sector.

Art

Considered the most despised group within Progress by most citizens of the Reich, the Art group reported on the various art forms throughout the nation and passed judgment on the art in order to ensure the art stayed in line with the ideals of the New Order, though the Art group did not necessarily ban works of art that might have been unfavorable to the Reich.

Instead, when the Art group had a particularly bad review of a piece of art, they attached a holopanel near the site that continuously replayed their review. The text had an intense red wavelength, which caused these holopanels to earn the name "scarlet"

Education

Unlike the SAGEducation branch of the Sub-Adult Group, the Education division of Progress did not teach. They were given the mandate to homogenize the level of education throughout the Reich and to place emphasis on the values directed by the New Order. Education gathers data in individual provinces and informs the governor of that province how to transform their educational system to better conform with the dictates of the New Order.

The Select Committee, the executive branch of COMPNOR, used Education as a dumping grounds for incompetents who were still politically useful, and being reassigned to Education was called "being sent to the idea dusters."

Commerce

Tasked with working in conjunction with the large commercial businesses to design programs for economic improvement on sectors within the Empire, the Commerce division of Progress was highly successful in giving crucial and effective aid to sectors which had been neglected after the last World War, which saw Germany subjugated under UFE control, with programs such as the Corporate Sector System Development Programs, or D-Progs. These sectors were made economically self-sufficient thanks to the efforts of Commerce, and in return the commercial businesses secured profitable new markets.

Science

Originally its own organization within COMPNOR, the Science group was moved to Progress to report on the political acceptability of scientific research within their assigned sector and to actively coordinate research and development efforts in the New Order to enhance the scientific progress of the Empire.

CompForce Stormtrooper Corps

Stormtroopertk4.jpg

CompForce was the military wing of COMPNOR, created to provide Visari with an army of utterly loyal soldiers. Like the Emperor's Royal Guard Corps, it is under the direct control of the Emperor and Central Command. Imperial Stormtroopers are chosen through a vigerous testing program. If a man between the ages of 18 and 30 scores in the top fifth percentile, an Imperial recruiting agent would contact these people and immediantly recruit them into the Stormtrooper Corps. Men who don't score that high are still wanted as regular soldiers. Also, it was preferable if stormtrooper recruits met a certain standard in height and weight.

The basic unit of organization is the individual trooper. Each stormtrooper is assigned a number for tactical purposes and to reinforce the Imperial ethic of uniformity. Troopers are organized into squads, platoons, companies, battalions, regiments, and legions. A company commander could give command to any regular officer over any given squad or platoon.

Education/Role

The Stormtrooper Corps was the military wing of COMPNOR, created to provide Scoliar Visari with an army of utterly loyal soldiers separate from the Wehrmacht. Stormtroopers were trained to obey orders without thinking, but at the same time, they were proudly independent of the line military. They \were embedded within the hierarchy of the Imperial Military, and their members were motivated primarily by conscious adherence to the tenets of the New Order. In theory, they were shock troops and officer candidates; in effect, they were security troops and political police, answerable to the New Order's ideologues rather than the High Command—an army within the Army.

Imperial Stormtroopers are chosen through a vigerous testing program. If a man between the ages of 18 and 30 scores in the top fifth percentile, an Imperial recruiting agent would contact these people and immediatly recruit them into the Stormtrooper Corps. Men who don't score that high are still wanted as regular soldiers. Also, it was preferable if stormtrooper recruits met a certain standard in height and weight.

Stormtrooper training includes basic training and field exercises before moving on to their more specialized training. Stormtroopers go through ferocious training as a unit, which provides strong unit cohesion on the battlefield as well as a willingness to fight on despite heavy casualties.

Stormtrooper officers are commissioned from the Military Academy at Berlin and the riflemen trained at Imperial Military Training Base in Austria. The Stormtroopers are the favored service when it comes to security and "loyalty police". They are ubiquitous as embassy security and personal security detachments. The Stormtroopers are the shock troopers of the Reich, famous for striking first, striking fast, and striking hard; what's more, they are also reputed as the most versatile, with whole special-operations divisions specifically trained for operating in hostile environments as varied as the imagination could conceive.

Composition

ST-Divisions are classified as Panzer divisions and have 15,000 troops each

1st ST Division Leibstandarte ST Scolar Visari

2nd ST Division Nordland

3rd ST Division Visarijugend

4th ST Division Germania

5th ST Division Prinz Eugen

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Reich Intelligence Agency

Reich Intelligence, sometimes abbreviated Reich Intel, is the elite intelligence agency of the Reich.

The mission of Reich Intelligence is to support the Kaiser, Imperial High Command, and all officials who make and execute Reich policy by:

Providing accurate, comprehensive, and timely foreign intelligence on all security topics.

Conducting counterintelligence activities, special activities, and other functions related to foreign intelligence and state security, as directed by the Kaiser.

Providing advisory to all branches of the Reich on foreign intelligence matters.

-- To accomplish its mission, Reich Intelligence engages in research, development, and deployment of high-leverage technology for intelligence purposes. As a separate branch, Reich Intelligence serves as an independent source of analysis on topics of concern and also works closely with the other organizations in the Reich Security Council to ensure that the intelligence consumer - battlefield Commander - receives the best intelligence possible.

As changing realities have re-ordered the security agenda, Reich Intelligence has met these new challenges by:

Creating special, multi-disciplinary centers to address such high-priority issues such as nonproliferation, counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, organized crime and narcotics trafficking, environment, and arms control intelligence.

Forging stronger partnerships between the several intelligence collection disciplines and all-source analysis.

Taking an active part in Intelligence Community analytical efforts and producing all-source analysis on the full range of topics that affect Imperial security.

Contributing to the effectiveness of the overall Intelligence Community by managing services of common concern in imagery analysis and open-source collection and participating in partnerships with other intelligence agencies in the areas of research and development and technical collection.

Command System

Unlike the Reich Security Bureau, intel personnel are not organized according to a military-style system of ranks. Rather, they are assigned on a case-by-case basis. They are formally addressed as "Agent (Name)", in lieu of a rank.

The Director of Reich Intelligence:

Director of Reich Intelligence is the representative and chief of staff for the Ubiqtorate, and Bureau Chiefs within Reich Intelligence. The Director is responsible for establishing and managing the state's methods and support systems for acquiring, sorting, and analysing information and threats to the Reich. Operations requiring the waging of unconventional warfare or the use of deniable assets will commonly come under the hand of the Director as well. While a civilian, the Director of Reich Intelligence is afforded a great range of movement within military matters, advising as available. Ultimately, the Director is responsible for the administration and execution of all affairs within and undertaken by Reich Intelligence, and reports only to the Kaiser.

The Deputy Director of Imperial Intelligence

The Deputy Director of Reich Intelligence is the Executive Officer of Reich Intelligence. The Deputy Director is responsible for managing personnel and resource allocations within the various Bureaus and Branches. The Deputy Director will also perform tasks as required by the Director of Reich Intelligence, and will succeed the Director of Reich Intelligence.

Bureau Chiefs of Imperial Intelligence

The Bureau Chief is the Chief of all personnel and management in their assigned Bureau. The Bureau Chief will supervise all Operations and Missions the Bureau is assigned, and the Bureau Chief will present all results to the Ubiqtorate.

Ubiqtorate

The Ubiqtorate oversees all of the activities of Reich Intelligence at the highest levels. Details and tactical considerations are decided by the appropriate bureau or branch of Reich Intelligence. The Ubiqtorate never concerns itself with those. The Ubiqtorate formulates strategies for the bureaus of Reich Intelligence or, as has recently become common, presents the bureaus with a set of goals and very broad grand strategic considerations and asks them to plan an effective strategy. With the exception of Adjustments, members of the Ubiqtorate never have any communication with personnel at the sector level. They would certainly never deal with an individual field agent.

Adjustments

Adjustments is the most elite branch of Reich Intelligence, with the exception for the Ubiqtorate, which directly controlls Adjustments. Adjustment agents are called in when the Ubiqtorate felt that a critical situation had slipped from the control of Reich Intelligence, and that the situation was beyond the normal capabilities of the bureaus, yet was not completely hopeless in resolving. Agents of Adjustments would receive orders directly and in person from the Ubiqtorate. Ubiqtorate would inform Adjustments what the problem was, what resources were available to find a solution to the problem, and the Adjustments team would then solve the situation. No record of their orders was ever kept and no mission files existed within the Plexis for these agents.

Internal Organization Bureau

Called "IntOrg" by those within Reich Intelligence, this bureau's mandate is to protect Reich Intelligence's security from outside threats and those which might be generated from within. As IntOrg must deal with the rest of Reich Intelligence, its agents have cultivated a highly civil manner and a strong sense of political etiquette, and then combined those with complete ruthlessness when the stakes are high and the threat is real.

Internal Counterintelligence Branch (IntCon) looks for enemy agents or spy rings which may have been implanted in Imperial Intelligence by enemies or other forces inimical to the New Order. Through Sector Plexus, they have an extraordinary freedom to access any data they may consider useful, in many cases obtaining the information more readily than would a member of the Ubiqtorate. IntCon deals with all levels of Imperial Intelligence.

Internal Security Branch (IntSec) is responsible for the physical security of the personnel,materiel and facilities of Imperial Intelligence.

Bureau of Analysis (Analysis)

This bureau handles gargantuan amounts of data from tens of millions of sources. In addition to looking for enemy activity, it looks for patterns or trends in social data, which might be useful to the agents over in Intelligence. Analysis also handles, examines and copies useful technologies, even developing a few of their own.

The Media Bureau, of the Bureau of Analysis, pores over public scandocs, newsdocs, holos, comlinks, beamcasts, every form of media in the Reich, looking for patterns or hidden meanings which might betray a clue as to an enemy's plans and operations. Media can, with substantial assistance from Sector Plexus and the Imperial CompLink, give at least a cursory examination of all media in the Reich simultaneously. While they regularly concentrate on a significantly smaller portion of the Reich, they do cast their net wide often enough to make a professional judgment as to whether or not a new media source should be monitored on a more regular basis.

While Media monitors the intended message, Signal examines the channel through which the information was transmitted. The Signal Bureau samples and checks carrierwave codes and CompLink protocols, scan rates on scandocs and imagepacks on holos to see if any information is being squeezed into the space between what a citizen would ordinarily sense. Signal examines line noise to see if it might contain a pattern rather than random error. Broadcasts and beamcasts are examined to see if the backup information sent with the primary information actually matches and, if not, how they differ.

When Media or Signal finds evidence of coded communication, they give it to the Cryptanalysis. Cryptanalysis are tasked with decoding possible enemy communications.

Tech Analysis has two jobs — to figure out how anenemy's hardware works, and to provide Reich intelligence with hardware which is superior to that. Tech has a lavish budget and a number of highly skilled personnel whose moments of brilliant inspiration can translate into innovative technology.

Bureau of Intelligence

When Analysis finishes sorting, cleaning, decoding, or otherwise manipulating the data sent to them, they pass it on to Intelligence. Intelligence has culled experts from all over the Reich. They have recruited military experts, cultural experts, experts in politics, economics, science and technology, universities, corporations, provincial governments, artistic movements, religious movements, the media, the underworld - they have pulled in experts from nearly every conceivable place or organization, including some turncoats.

Intelligence combines the vast knowledge of its agents with the most sophisticated computer models in the world to predict trends or future actions of the enemies of the New Order. These predictions are refined into reports transmitted to the Ubiqtorate. From these reports, the Ubiqtorate establishes priorities and sets strategies for the whole of Reich Intelligence.

An Imporant branch of the Bureau of Intelligence is Excomm. ExComm is a branch with its own communications equipment. While much smaller than Sector Plexus, ExComm is used for emergency communication with system cells, or for priority communications with the military forces of the Empire. ExComm is used for those rare times when the labyrinthine communication works of Sector Plexus are just not quick enough.

Another important branch is Sedition. Sedition is a branch of the Bureau of Intelligence which specializes in knowledge and predictions on organized opposition to the Reich. Sedition has been growing rapidly in the past few years, keeping pace with the possible increased resentment to the Kaiser's rule.

Crisis is not a permanent branch of Intelligence. It is created as need arises, a Crisis branch for each active hot spot within the world. A Crisis branch is in constant contact with the Ubiqtorate, and ExComm facilities are at their disposal for direct contacts with Gauleiters, and even the Emperor if the situation is dire enough.

The sector branches are the basic divisions of Intelligence. There is a sector branch for each sector in the Empire as well as each continent in the world, and each sector branch has scores or hundreds of experts within it. Sedition and Crisis draw from the sector branches as is appropriate for the situation currently under consideration.

Bureau of Operations (Operations)

Of all the bureaus in Reich Intelligence, this is the one which is called the "Bureau"; no one in the Reich for more than a few days would call it anything else. Operating in the strictest secrecy, the Bureau conducts all manners of clandestine and special operations and information gathering for Imperial Intelligence.

An important department in the Operations Bureau is Serveillance. A point of pride with Surveillance is their small size, especially in comparison with the huge organization maintained by COMPNOR through the ISB. Imperial Intelligence has less the one agent in Surveillance for every 70 so dedicated in the RSB, yet Surveillance successfully keeps watch on more serious threats to the Reich than does the RSB.

Intelligence gives Surveillance megascandocs of material on potential enemies of the New Order; the genius of Surveillance is the ability to sort through the information and unerringly select suspects who are currently involved in anti-Imperial activity. Surveillance agents are thoroughly briefed on everything which is known about the suspect. Often more than one agent is selected for an important case, and Surveillance actively solicits the help of any available system cells.

The second deparment in the operations bureau is Infiltration. After indoctrination, Infiltration agents are often reassigned to Intelligence, assigned as assistants to a few sector branches, and then assigned to Sedition (Intelligence Bureau). Double-agents are active operatives, taking part in enemy actions against the Empire. Their job is to give Imperial Intelligence good enough information to allow the Empire to do greater damage than the double-agent's perations do to the Empire.

Diplomatic Services is the catch-all branch of the Bureau. It provides a sizable portion of the personnel for trade and diplomatic missionsm found in Imperial garrisons, as well as political experts for foreign governments and Moffs. Many of these personnel are well trained and expected to perform only their overt duties, with the exception of reporting their action to Imperial Intelligence.

Renik is a branch in the Bureau of Operations in charge of counterintelligence, which is the art of identifying and dismantling enemy spy operations, within the Reich. If a particular spy operation is considered to be potentially useful, Renik hands over all information on the enemy operation to Infiltration, which takes it from there. If the enemy group is considered insignificant or too dangerous to allow continued operations, Renik destroys it.

Referred to as "the quiet branch," no one hears much about Destabilization (DESTAB). Destabilization is the branch which specializes in "taking the fabric which holds a people, society or government together and unraveling it." Agents from other branches suggest Destab's methods more closely resemble shredding.

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Reich Security Bureau

The Reich Security Bureau (SSB) is by far the best-known and most-invasive of COMPNOR's creatures. Like CompForce, it was never clearly identified as an official arm of the Reich, but nor was it ever clearly separated and defined as a private organization. Dwelling perpetually in the penumbra of quango officialdom, it behaved for all intents and purposes as a government agency; its standing to act was only rarely challenged in court, and that, almost never successfully — most courts instinctively shrank from the question, issuing the stupefying hand-washing opinion that it was "a political question beyond the competence of this court."

Officially it was supposed to serve as a secret police force, intended to protect the Reich from infiltration by Separatist saboteurs (in later years its mandate was extended to anarchists, insurrectionists, and seditionists), with at best ancillary roles in general counterintelligence, counterinsurgency, and counterterrorism. In practice, it functioned as the Empire's thought police and the Ersatzstaat's alternative to the State's various intelligence, security, and police agencies, and entertained a cordially vicious rivalry with Imperial Intelligence.

Central Command

At the head of the SSB stood the Central Commander, an iron-fisted dictator who fancied himself an equal to the members of the Supreme Commander's Committee. From the gargantuan Central Office in Berlin, he controlled one of the largest organizations in the country, a vast army of humorless special agents from the Surveillance, Investigations, Internal Affairs, Interrogation, Re-Education, and Enforcement divisions whom the Commission of Operations placed at every echelon of the government and citizen population. Resplendent in their white tunics and polished-to-a-mirror-finish black leather shoes, the Central Commander's legions were virtual avatars of Correct Thought, and were notorious hairtriggers, at that — at the least provocation, whiteshirts were known to haul suspects off to "protective custody" in extrajudicial penal camps, or to blacklist anyone whose cooperation they thought insufficiently enthusiastic ("unmutual").

Commission of Operations

The Commission of Operations transmits assignments through the Central Office directly to the Sector Officer for the branch in question: Surveillance, Investigations, Internal Affairs, Interrogation, Re-Education, or Enforcement. Any coordinated actions between the different branches within a sector, or between SSB resources in separate sectors, is dictated by the Commission and directed by the Central Office. Independent coordination by sector resources is strongly discouraged.

Surveillance

Surveillance is the largest branch of RSB, with nearly 35 percent of all personnel in the Bureau. This bureau is commonly employed to search for potentially rebellious activity. What they find, if substantial enough, is turned over to Investigations.

Often functioning secretly, Surveillance agents make constant records of the people they come in contact with. These records are cataloged at a constantly updated databank located at the RSB’s Central Office in Berlin. Surveillance agents may be placed anywhere within the civilian populous, the military, or the bureaucracy. Agents may be assigned to specific areas or posts because of suspicion or rumors, or, may they be randomly placed in order to gain an accurate sample of Reich opinion. This branch is tasked with constantly monitoring the attitude towards the Kaiser and his empire, and, dictating to more the more activist RSB branches when intervention is needed.

As well, Surveillance submits regular reports through ISB’s office to the Reich Ministry of Justice. These reports reflect Surveillance’s observations on the general effectiveness and contingencies of Imperial Law.

Investigations

Investigations is closely connected with the Imperial Military and police, and often draw support from these forces when rooting out uncovered threats. Their explicit charge is much the same as Surveillance, however they take a far more active role in the persecution of what they expose.

Investigations agents are skilled operatives, heavily trained in the art of field intelligence, interrogation, sabotage, urban and rural close proximity combat. The branch labors to seek out and eliminate Rebellious activity. To highlight this, Investigations has direct communication with military and police forces in the area. These links are approved directly by the Select Committee and the appropriate Gauleiter and RSB Sector Office. Investigations individuals or teams may therefore call on a considerable degree of firepower when pursuing a case. This immediately available firepower allows the department to eliminate much larger threats far more quickly.

Most Investigations agents operate publically, using fear and intimidation as their primary weapon. Coordinating findings from Surveillance with the military they make any strikes nescessary to accomplish their goals, and destroy their targets. Coupled with the availability of military-grade striking action, all hostile agencies, from single rouge agents, to massive terrorist spy networks hold a legitimate fear of this department.

Internal Affairs

Internal Affairs concerns itself with the oversight of matters within the Reich, putting the loyalty of all under close inspection and, ensuring the direct application of law within the Reich's own ranks. Besides the investigative staff, every military garrison, ship and command has a public Internal Affairs officer. These RSB Officers are available to hear all information ranging from personnel complaints, to rumors of ill-loyalty among co-workers.

Internal Affairs is at liberty to investigate, and charge any citizen (within the Military, Government, COMPNOR, etc) wherein they deem sufficient evidence and/or significant reason.

Interrogation

Interrogation comes into play after a suspect is apprehended, typically by Investigations, and is charged with extracting any data that the suspect has been reluctant to willingly divulge. The information uncovered is sent back to Investigations.

Re-Education

Re-Education concerns itself with those members of the State who have been convicted of a crime by Internal Affairs. Those convicted are sent to Re-Education and are forcibly retrained and re-indoctrinated, then returned to a post of lower importance.

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