Jump to content



Recommended Posts

I am looking for members for my alliance, Athens. We are looking for active people, to post on our forums, to chat in our IRC. Check my alliance's stats and there are few who can compare even though we are a small alliance so far.

We would love to have you join us. If you are interestd 1. Register on our forum http://www.cn-athens.com/index.php. 2. Post your application. 3. Change your Alliance Affiliation to Athens.

And what are the advantages for joining Athens:

-AID through academy and tech deals...

-PROTECTION from tech raids...

-Opportunity for doing tech deals and participating in trade circles

-GOOD COMMUNITY, who helps you if you need help...

-GUIDES and personal HELP how to make a large and prosperous nation...

-Government positions open for qualified active members...

-Organized group Tech Raids for military training...check my body count o/

_Aqua team alliance...color is negotiable in some cases...

If you a interested or just you have a question about he game feel free to PM me and visit our forums:


Hope to see you there...

stonewall14 of Dixie Cove

Edited by Stonewall14
Link to comment
Share on other sites

The rise of the hoplite


A hoplite armed with an aspis and a doruThe hoplite was a heavy infantryman, the central element of warfare in Ancient Greece. The word hoplite (Greek ὁπλίτης, hoplitēs) derives from hoplon (ὅπλον, plural hopla, ὅπλα) meaning an item of armor or equipment, thus 'hoplite' may approximate to 'armored man'. Hoplites were the citizen-soldiers of the Ancient Greek City-states. They were primarily armed as spear-men and fought in a phalanx formation.

The origins of the hoplite are obscure, and no small matter of contention amongst historians. Traditionally, this has been dated to the 8th century BCE, and attributed to Sparta; but more recent views suggest a later date, towards the 7th century BCE. Certainly, by approximately 650 BCE, as dated by the 'Chigi Vase', the 'hoplite revolution' was complete. The major innovation in the development of the hoplite seems to have been the characteristic circular shield (Aspis), roughly 1 metre in diameter, and made of wood faced with bronze [2]. Although very heavy (8-15kg), the design of this shield was such that it could be supported on the shoulder. More importantly, it permitted the formation of a shield-wall by an army, an impenetrable mass of men and shields. When this was combined with the primary weapon of the hoplite, 2-3 meter long spear (the doru), it gave both offensive and defensive capabilities.



Regardless of where it developed, the model for the hoplite army evidently quickly spread throughout Greece. The persuasive qualities of the phalanx were probably its relative simplicity (allowing its use be a citizen militia), low fatality rate (important for small city-states), and relatively low cost (enough for each hoplite to provide their own equipment)[3].

The hoplite phalanx

Main article: Phalanx formation

Reconstruction of a hoplite phalanx formationThe hoplite phalanx of the Archaic and Classical periods in Greece (approx. 750-350 BCE) was a formation in which the hoplites would line up in ranks in close order. The hoplites would lock their shields together, and the first few ranks of soldiers would project their spears out over the first rank of shields. The phalanx therefore presented a shield wall and a mass of spear points to the enemy, making frontal assaults much more difficult. It also allowed a higher proportion of the soldiers to be actively engaged in combat at a given time (rather than just those in the front rank).

When advancing towards an enemy, the phalanx would break into a run that was sufficient enough to create momentum but not too much as to lose cohesion. The opposing sides would collide viciously, possibly shivering many of the spears of the front row. The battle would then rely on the valour of the men in the front line; whilst those in the rear maintained forward pressure on the front ranks with their shields. When in combat, the whole formation would consistently press forward trying to break the enemy formation; thus when two phalanx formations engaged, the struggle essentially became a pushing match[citation needed], in which, as a rule, the deeper phalanx would almost always win, with few recorded exceptions.

[edit] Hoplite warfare

At least in the Archaic Period, The fragmentary nature of Ancient Greece, with many competing city-states, increased the frequency of conflict, but conversely limited the scale of warfare. Unable to maintain professional armies, the city-states relied on their own citizens to fight. This inevitably reduced the potential duration of campaigns, as citizens would need to return to the own professions (especially in the case of e.g. farmers). Campaigns would therefore often be restricted to summer. Armies marched directly to their target, possibly agreed on by the protagonists.

If battle was refused by one side, they would retreat to the city, in which case the attackers generally had to content themselves with ravaging the countryside around, since siegecraft was undeveloped. When battles occurred, they were usually set piece and intended to be decisive. The battlefield would be flat and open, reducing the possibilities for complex tactical manoeuvres. These battles were short, bloody, and brutal, and thus required a high degree of discipline. At least in the early classical period, other troops were less important; (cavalry) generally protected the flanks, when present at all; and both light infantry and missile troops were negligible.

The strength of hoplites was shock combat. The two phalanxes would smash into each other in hopes of breaking or encircling the enemy force's line. Failing that, a battle degenerated into a pushing match, with the men in the rear trying to force the front lines through those of the enemy. This maneuver was known as the othismos. Battles rarely lasted more than an hour. Once one of the lines broke, the troops would generally flee from the field, sometimes chased by peltasts or light cavalry. If a hoplite escaped, he would sometimes be forced to drop his cumbersome aspis, thereby disgracing himself to his friends and family. Casualties were slight compared to later battles, rarely amounting to more than 5% of the losing side, but the slain often included the most prominent citizens and generals who led from the front. Thus, the whole war could be decided by a single field battle; victory was enforced by ransoming the fallen back to the defeated, called the 'Custom of The dead Greeks'.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Heavy cavalry

The first version of "heavy cavalry" developed and employed by the Hellenic states were the Hetairoi (Companions; Companion Cavalry), the landed aristocracy of Macedon that Philip II and his son Alexander relied so heavily on for their decisive attacks. Stirrups were unknown during this time, so impact charges were limited in their effectiveness--strikes with a xyston spear were likely angled away from the wielder, as opposed to head-on. Hetairoi were well-armoured; Their cuirass ranged from quilted linen models to metal breast-and-back-plates. A variety of helmets were worn; perhaps greaves were, as well. Their weapons consisted of a 9-foot (2.7 m)-long xyston, and a sword in the event that their spear was broken. It appears that shields were not used by the Companion Cavalry. In any event, it didn't seem to hamper their effectiveness which relied on a bold charge into the weak link in the enemy lines which were held in place by the phalanx, followed by savage hand to hand combat.


Join Athens today!!! :awesome:

Link to comment
Share on other sites

  • Athens
    :. Alliance Query Results Last Updated: 1/29/2009 4:31:59 PM
    Alliance Name Total Nations Active Nations Percent Active Strength Avg. Strength Score
    Athens 86 54 63% 1,669,875 19,417 6.59
    :. Alliance Nation Statistics Last Updated: 1/29/2009 1:03:08 PM
    Land Infras. Tech Aircraft Nukes Anarchy
    94,561 341,778 59,696 2,470 213 2
    Soldiers Tanks Cruise Navy War Peace
    1,503,775 67,184 408 144 86 0
    :. Alliance Improvements & Wonders Last Updated: 1/29/2009 1:03:08 PM
    Improvements Wonders
    362 Banks
    94 Barracks
    100 Border Walls
    177 Churches
    307 Clinics
    45 Drydocks
    253 Factories
    79 Foreign Ministries
    45 Guerilla Camps
    84 Harbors
    65 Hospitals
    219 Intelligence Agencies
    277 Labor Camps
    85 Missile Defenses
    14 Naval Academies
    21 Naval Construction Yards
    254 Police Headquarters
    62 Satellites
    350 Schools
    42 Shipyards
    320 Stadiums
    143 Universities
    3,398 Total 4 Agriculture Development Programs
    3 Anti-Air Defense Networks
    19 Disaster Relief Agencies
    1 Fallout Shelter System
    1 Federal Aid Commissions
    4 Foreign Airforce Base
    19 Great Monuments
    18 Great Temples
    7 Great Universities
    3 Hidden Nuclear Missile Silos
    14 Internet Systems
    17 Interstate Systems
    12 Manhattan Projects
    1 Mining Industry Consortiums
    3 Movie Industries
    0 National Environment Offices
    15 National Research Labs
    7 National War Memorials
    0 Nuclear Power Plants
    8 Pentagons
    0 Scientific Development Centers
    34 Social Security Systems
    7 Space Programs
    45 Stock Markets
    6 Strategic Defense Initiatives
    1 Universal Health Care Programs
    1 Weapons Research Complexes
    250 Total

Link to comment
Share on other sites


Ezek 35 8... And I will fill his mountains with his slain men: in thy hills, and in thy valleys, and in all thy rivers, shall they fall that are slain with the sword...




Edited by Stonewall14
Link to comment
Share on other sites



A drawing of a Macedonian phalanx (the shields are smaller and lighter than with a traditional hoplite phalanx, the sarissa is twice as long as the traditional spears and fully enclosed helmets weren't as widespread as the drawing suggests, though they did protect more than open face helmets.)The size of the phalanx fielded by Macedon and its various successor states varied greatly. Alexander the Great, for example, fielded 9,000 Foot Companions throughout much of his campaign. These were divided into six, 1,500-man brigades, each from a separate district of Macedon. Phillip V fielded 16,000 phalangites at Cynoscephalae, and Perseus reputedly fielded over 20,000 at Pydna.

These soldiers fought in close-ranked rectangular formations, of which the smallest tactical unit was the 256 men strong syntagma or speira. This formation typically fought eight or sixteen men deep and in a frontage of thirty-two or sixteen men accordingly. Each file of 16 men included two junior officers (one at the head and one at the rear) and a tertiary leader (at the middle of the file). The commander of this unit theoretically fought at the head of the extreme far-right file. According to Aelian, a syntagma was accompanied by five additional individuals to the rear: a herald (to act as a messenger), a trumpeter (to sound out commands), an ensign (to hold the unit's standard), an additional officer (called ouragos), and a servant.

Each phalangite carried as his primary weapon a sarissa, a pike over 6 m (18 ft) in length, with a counterweight and spiked end at the rear called a sauroter. The length of these pikes was such that they had to be wielded with two hands in battle. At close range such large weapons were of little use, but an intact phalanx could easily keep its enemies at a distance; the weapons of the first five rows of men all projected beyond the front of the formation, so that there were more spearpoints than available targets at any given time. A phalangite also carried a sword as a secondary weapon for close quarter fighting.

The armament of the Phalangites is described in Greek by the military decree of Amphipolis (ca. 200 BC).[2]It lists the fines imposed upon the soldiers who fail to maintain their armament or produce it upon demand. Listed defensive equipment include a non-metallic armour (kotthybos /κότθυβος), an ogive helmet (kônos / κῶνος), a shield (aspis /ἀσπίς) and leggings (knêmides /κνημίδες); offensive weapons were a pike (sarissa /σάρισα) and a short sword (machaira /μάχαιρα). The officers wore heavier armour(thorax/θώραξ) or half-armour (hemithorakion/ἡμιθωράκιον). It should be stressed that the archaeological discoveries show that the phalangites could also use the two-edged sword (xiphos/ξίφος) as well as the spear (doru/δόρυ) shorter than sarissa. What is not known is whether the above indicates standardized equipment or the minimum expected for each soldier.

Alexander did not actually use the phalanx as the decisive arm of his battles, but instead used it to pin and demoralize the enemy while his heavy cavalry would charge selected opponents or exposed enemy unit flanks, most usually after driving the enemy horse they engaged from the field. An example of this is the Battle of Gaugamela, where, after maneuvering to the right to prevent a double envelopment from the Persian army and making Dareios command his cavalry on his left flank to check the oblique movement of the Greeks by attacking their cavalry, the Companions charged the weakened enemy center where Dareios was posted and were followed by the hypaspists and the phalanx proper.

Other forces — skirmishers, missile troops, reserves of allied hoplites, Cretan archers, and artillery — were also employed. The phalanx carried with it a fairly minimal baggage train, with only one servant for every ten men. This gave it a marching speed that contemporary armies could not hope to match — on occasion forces surrendered to Alexander simply because they were not expecting him to show up for several more days. This was made possible thanks to the training Phillip instilled in his army--which included regular forced marches.

The Macedonian phalanx itself was thus not very different from the hoplite phalanx of other Greek states as a formation. As an evolution of the hoplite phalanx, it featured improved equipment, training, and tactics. In Phillip's and Alexander's time, the Macedonian phalanx had clear technical superiority.

o/ Athens

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.

Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • Create New...